PURPOSE We compare patient outcomes after 180 W XPS™ GreenLight™ photoselective vaporization of the prostate and GreenLight laser enucleation of the prostate used to surgically manage benign prostatic obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two groups of 60 consecutive patients with enlarged glands (greater than 80 ml) underwent GreenLight laser prostate enucleation or photoselective prostate vaporization (performed by the same surgeon and including the learning curve) and were retrospectively evaluated. Perioperative data from both groups were compared. RESULTS The operative time was significantly shorter in the GreenLight laser prostate enucleation group (60 vs 82 minutes, p <0.0001). Complication rates were comparable between the groups. At 2 months the rate of urinary incontinence was significantly higher in the GreenLight laser prostate enucleation group (25% vs 3.4%, p <0.0001) but incontinence rates were similar at 6 months (3.4% vs 0%, p=0.50). At 6 months International Prostate Symptom Score quality of life and post-void residual urine volume had similarly decreased in the 2 groups after the procedure (compared to baseline), whereas the maximum urinary flow rate had greatly improved, significantly favoring the GreenLight laser prostate enucleation group (+78% vs +64%, p <0.0001). Prostate size and prostate specific antigen reductions were significantly higher in the GreenLight laser prostate enucleation group (74% vs 57%, p <0.0001 and 67% vs 40%, respectively, p=0.007). The unplanned hospital readmission rates were similar in both groups (16.7% vs 6.7%, p=0.16). CONCLUSIONS Photoselective vaporization of the prostate and GreenLight laser enucleation of the prostate are safe and provide satisfactory short-term functional outcomes in patients with a prostate volume greater than 80 ml. However, the surgical time was longer in the photoselective prostate vaporization group, which also had a higher rate of unplanned hospital readmission, and lower decreases in prostate specific antigen and prostate size.