Dipivefrin and echothiophate. Efficacy of combined use in human beings.

  title={Dipivefrin and echothiophate. Efficacy of combined use in human beings.},
  author={Joel S. Mindel and Michael E. Yablonski and H O Tavitian and Steven M. Podos and Juan Orellana},
  journal={Archives of ophthalmology},
  volume={99 9},
In a previous study, pretreatment of rabbit eyes with echothiophate iodide prevented the ocular hypotensive effect of dipivefrin. The present masked study, using inpatient volunteers and nurse-administered drops, investigated whether a similar antagonism of action occurred in human beings. Eight volunteers received 0.25% echothiophate iodide twice a day in both eyes for three weeks. During the second week of therapy, one eye also received 0.25% dipivefrin twice a day and the contralateral eye… Expand
Enzymatic and nonenzymatic hydrolysis of D,L-dipivefrin.
It was concluded that D, L-dipivefrin was converted to D,L-epinephrine in vivo primarily by enzymatic hydrolysis and that cholinesterase inhibitors did not affect this conversion. Expand
Effects of echothiophate on enzymatic hydrolysis of dipivefrin.
In vitro studies showed that echothiophate is a competitive, reversible inhibitor of the soluble corneal dipivefrin esterases, and in vivo studies substantiated the reversible nature of e cholinesterase inhibition. Expand
Pharmacological and clinical aspects of glaucoma therapy
Eyedrops are very esciently absorbed by the nasal mucosa and since first pass metabolism in the liver is avoided drug plasma levels from topical and intravenous administrations will be comparable. Expand
Ophthalmic Clinical Pharmacology Reiview: Epinephrine and the Therapy of the Glaucomas
This review attempts to correlate the pharmacology of epinephrine with recent advances in related medical sciences and its actions and uses are reinterpreted from the viewpoint provided by these advances and their relevance to current ophthalmic practice is underscores. Expand
Effect of Drugs and Nanoformulation on Ocular Cells in Various Disease States
The current chapter summarizes the effect of different drugs and nanoformulation on ocular cells and indicates nanoformulations are the new strategy for the treatment of ocular diseases which can easily pass the ocular barrier and the drug can be targeted at its right place. Expand
Ocular Pharmacokinetics.
  • C. Durairaj
  • Medicine
  • Handbook of experimental pharmacology
  • 2017
A brief overview of the barrier properties with respect to various routes of administration is presented along with the physicochemical properties that influence the pharmacokinetics of ocular drugs. Expand
Ophthalmic drug delivery considerations at the cellular level: drug-metabolising enzymes and transporters
Characterisation of ocular enzyme systems and cellular transporters and their respective substrate selectivity have provided new insight into the roles these proteins may play in ocular drug delivery and distribution. Expand
Neue Kombinationspräparate mit nur zwei Applikationen täglich als Bestandteil einer medikamentösen Drei- oder Vierkomponententherapie des Glaukoms
Drei neue Kombinationspraparate werden vorgeschlagen: 1. Die fixe Kombination aus Carbachol und Betaxolol. 2. Die fixe Kombination aus Carbachol und DPE. 3. Die fixeExpand


Dipivefrin and echothiophate: contraindications to combined use.
Results fit the theory that the esterase converting dipivefrin to epinephrine is inactivated by cholinesterase inhibitors. Expand
Acute effect of epinephrine on aqueous humor formation in the timolol-treated normal eye as measured by fluorophotometry.
Intraocular pressure was so low in both eyes that differences in intraocular pressure were not expected and tonographic tracings were difficult to interpret, but no statistically significant difference was found in intracular pressure or in tonographic C value between the epinephrine-treated and the placebo-treated eye. Expand
A fluorophotometric study of the effect of topical timolol on aqueous humor dynamics.
It was found that the acute decrease in intraocular pressure caused by timolol can be explained entirely by its effect on the aqueous flow. Expand
Dipivalyl epinephrine: a new pro-drug in the treatment of glaucoma.
The dansyl chloride technique in conjunction with thin layer chromatography and autoradiography has shown that dipivalyl epinephrine is a pro-drug in the human eye. Dipivalyl epinephrine appears toExpand
In vitro determination of the ability of drugs to bind to adrenergic receptors.
The results demonstrate that in vitro binding assays for alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors are useful for studying the mechanism of drug action. Expand
For the past few years my associates and I have been studying the various forms of esterase present in vertebrate plasma.' This comparative study has revealed that three types or groups of esteraseExpand
Membrane marker enzymes. Characterization of an arylesterase of guinea pig cerebral cortex utilizing p-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate.
  • H. Bosmann
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • 1972
Enrichment of the enzyme was found in the synaptosomal fraction of the cerebral cortex and the highest activity of the arylesterase in the subsynaptosome fraction was in the microsomal fraction, which showed isoelectric points of pH 5.1 and 5.8. Expand