Sexual difference and pollination system inHonkenya peploides var.major were investigated. The present analyses indicate that sex expression of this plant is functionally dioecious, rather than androdioecious, as described previously. Its flowers are largely pollinated by small bees, hover-flies, flies, and ants. Female flowers were morphologically characterized by conspicuously longer styles and smaller petals, and had no pollen grains, while male flowers had shorter styles, larger petals, and longer filaments, and produced viable pollen grains. Although the male flowers possess many ovules in an ovary, they set fruits at a very low frequency in natural conditions and did not produce fruits by pollination experiments. We suggest that the dioecy of this species has been derived from hermaphrodite through gynodioecy, and not directly from hermaphrodite.