Diminishing returns epistasis among beneficial mutations decelerates adaptation.

@article{Chou2011DiminishingRE,
  title={Diminishing returns epistasis among beneficial mutations decelerates adaptation.},
  author={Hsin-Hung Chou and Hsuan-Chao Chiu and Nigel F. Delaney and Daniel Segr{\`e} and Christopher J. Marx},
  journal={Science},
  year={2011},
  volume={332 6034},
  pages={1190-2}
}
Epistasis has substantial impacts on evolution, in particular, the rate of adaptation. We generated combinations of beneficial mutations that arose in a lineage during rapid adaptation of a bacterium whose growth depended on a newly introduced metabolic pathway. The proportional selective benefit for three of the four loci consistently decreased when they were introduced onto more fit backgrounds. These three alleles all reduced morphological defects caused by expression of the foreign pathway… CONTINUE READING
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