Digital Map Generalization at the Age of Enlightenment: a Review of the First Forty Years

  title={Digital Map Generalization at the Age of Enlightenment: a Review of the First Forty Years},
  author={Zhilin Li},
  journal={The Cartographic Journal},
  pages={80 - 93}
  • Zhilin Li
  • Published 1 February 2007
  • Economics
  • The Cartographic Journal
Abstract From 1966 to 2006, digital map generalization has undergone a 40-year development. This paper provides an examination of the development in the first 40 years and an outlook. Emphasis is on theoretical and technical developments. 

Specification of Map Generalization from Large Scale to Small Scale Based on Existing Data

This research aims as a beginning in map generalization from large scale by looking at the condition of existing data at all three levels of scale, and can determine generalization pattern from scale of 1:5,000 to scale of1:25,000 and 1:250,000 for building feature, so it can be used as prototype design in building generalization.

A Review and Conceptual Framework for Generalization of Maps

This chapter reviews the pertinent generalization efforts made by a number of European NMAs and proposes a framework based on two correlated models: process-oriented generalization models and object-level-orientedgeneralization models, which is related to level of map objects.

Cartographic modelling for automated map generation

The choice for a high degree of abstraction for the outer, visual form is rooted in the theory of the chorématique at the junction of the ideographic and the nomothetic and is visually reinforced by using a limited set of symbols for nearly all geographic phenomena.

Progressive street networks

This paper tries to state that progressive representation needs the support from corresponding progressive generalization algorithm and tries to introduce information theory to solve the problem of "how to generalize".

Detection and generalization of changes in settlements for automated digital map updating

Nowadays, updating and maintenance of topographic maps at various scales have become difficult tasks faced by National Mapping Agencies (NMAs). Traditionally, maps at each scale were updated


An animation for multi-scale representation of spatial data to animate the operations for the geometric transformations in digital map generalization with morphing technique is described.

Review: Cartography: challenges and potential in the virtual geographic environments era

The author analyzed previous development and current state of the art of cartography on the background of latest scientific results coming with improvement of virtual geographic environments, and delimits the so-called inner and outer development of Cartography.

Recognizing building groups for generalization: a comparative study

ABSTRACT Recognition of building groups is a critical step in building generalization. To find building groups, various approaches have been developed based on the principles of grouping (or the

An optimization-based approach for continuous map generalization

This thesis is about continuous map generalization based on optimization and finds optimal sequences for aggregating land-cover areas by continuously generalizing buildings to built-up areas by aggregating and growing.

Knowledge acquisition model of map generalization based on granular computing

A model of knowledge representation and acquisition for automated map generalization based on granular computing is proposed and the conclusion is that knowledge acquisition lies on the dependence degree of decision-making attributes for condition attributes.



A review and conceptual framework of automated map generalization

It is argued that in computer-assisted generalization, the spatial modelling process can be simulated only by strategies based on understanding and not by a mere sequence of operational processing steps.

The Principles of Selection

The fundamental of cartographic generalisation, the reduction of the amount of information which can be shown on a map in relation to reduction in scale, is examined and the introduction of two constants to represent symbolic exaggeration and symbolic form is introduced.

A Natural Principle for the Objective Generalization of Digital Maps

A natural principle for the objective generalization of digital map data and other spatial data is described and how the natural principle works is compared with some methods that are currently used for generalization purposes.

The ‘ Good Continuation ’ Principle of Perceptual Organization applied to the Generalization of Road Networks

It is shown how the ‘good continuation’ grouping principle can serve as the basis for analyzing a road network into a set of linear elements, here termed ‘strokes’, and the effectiveness of the technique demonstrated.

Morphological Models for the Collapse of Area Features in Digital Map Generalization

A set of algebraic models built upon the operators in mathematical morphology is described for the area-to-line collapse and partial collapse operations.

Map generalization in the Web age

The widespread use of geographic information in computers in the context of geographical information systems (GIS) has brought with it the demand for automation of map generalization, and this demand has been reinforced by the prevalence of geographicalInformation access on the Internet.

Automated cartographic generalization for linear map features

An automated method is presented for generalization of linear features that are already in a topologically structured computer-readable form that consists of three stages: feature elimination, feature simplification, and interference detection and resolution.

Line Generalization by Waterlining And Medial-Axis Transformation. Successes and Issues in an Implementation of Perkal's Proposal

Abstract The hydrography of Cat Island, a rather small, albeit interesting feature in the Gulf of Mexico, is the subject of six generalizations executed with a procedure that replicates and extends

Morphological Transformation for the Elimination of Area Features in Digital Map Generalization

The models used in these techniques provide a mathematical basis for area elimination in digital generalization of digital map generalization, which employ several operators developed in mathematical morphology, a science of shape, form and structure.

Framework for Entropy-based Map Evaluation

How the Shannon information theory (Shannon and Weaver 1964) can be used to compute an evaluation index of a map, i.e., a parameter which measures the efficiency of the map is demonstrated.