Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and dominance in the Hadza and the Datoga of Tanzania

  title={Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and dominance in the Hadza and the Datoga of Tanzania},
  author={Marina L. Butovskaya and Valentina N. Burkova and Dmitry V. Karelin and Bernhard Fink},
  journal={American Journal of Human Biology},
Digit ratio (2D:4D)—a putative marker of prenatal androgen activity—has been shown to correlate with self‐reported physical aggression and dominance behavior, especially in male children and adolescents. This evidence is derived primarily from the study of Western samples. 
Exposure to fetal testosterone, aggression, and violent behavior: A meta-analysis of the 2D:4D digit ratio
Abstract The search for reliable risk factors is a staple among both scholars and policymakers concerned with structuring interventions designed to reduce aggressive and violent behavior. Within thisExpand
Second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is unrelated to measures of somatic reproductive effort among young men from Cebu, the Philippines.
Test the hypothesis that the association of low 2D:4D ratios with increased muscularity and decreased adiposity depends on current testosterone (T) levels, such that digit ratio will be a particularly strong predictor of outcomes among men exhibiting a mating-effort-oriented endocrine profile (high T). Expand
No sex difference in digit ratios (2D:4D) in the traditional Yali of Papua and its meaning for the previous hypotheses on the inter‐populational variability in 2D:4D
A study among the Yali, a traditional population from Papua, explores factors influencing the variability of 2D:4D, a sexually dimorphic trait in humans. Expand
The association between 2D:4D ratio and aggression in children and adolescents: Cross-cultural and gender differences.
Right 2D:4D was negatively related to physical aggression in boys only, suggesting possible relationship to prenatal androgenization. Expand
Association between second to fourth digit ratio and personality among Indian men
To examine the relationship between the personality domains with the second to fourth digit ratio (2d:4d); a prenatal testosterone exposure marker, a prenatalosterone exposure marker is used. Expand
Association of the digit ratio (2D:4D) with sexually dimorphic morphological traits
The association of 2D:4D ratio with morphological signs of masculinity/femininity within male and female samples were revealed only as a trend, which was more distinct for the functional indicators (handgrip strength). Expand
Hadza hunter-gatherer men do not have more masculine digit ratios (2D:4D).
These findings challenge the current view that lower 2D:4D in men is a uniform characteristic of the authors' species and may be related to known patterns of hormonal variation resulting from both genetic and environmental mechanisms. Expand
2d:4d, Big Fives and Aggression in Young Men of Caucasian, Ural and Asian Origin
According to modern views on human bio-sociality, Big Five personality traits have been shaped in the process of human evolution and their expression is an outcome of the complex interaction ofExpand
No Association between 2D:4D Ratio and Hunting Success among Hadza Hunters
A novel method of assessing hunting reputation is employed that, unlike previous methods, allows granular distinctions to be made between hunters at all levels of perceived ability and provides no support for the theorized relationship between 2D:4D ratio and hunting skill. Expand
Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) and digit ratio associates with aggression: comparison in seven ethnic groups
The data suggest that both oxytocin ( OXTR gene polymorphism) and fetal testosterone (2D:4D) may significantly affect emotional (anger) and cognitive (hostility) aggression in humans, given the leveling the role of culture. Expand


Digit ratio (2D:4D), dominance, reproductive success, asymmetry, and sociosexuality in the BBC Internet Study
  • J. Manning, B. Fink
  • Biology, Medicine
  • American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 2008
The BBC Internet Study of sex differences in which finger lengths were self‐measured shows sexual dimorphism, ethnic differences and higherDimorphism of right 2D:4D than left, thereby indicating that 2D-4D does measure real between‐participant variation. Expand
Meta-analysis of the relationship between digit-ratio 2D:4D and aggression
Males tend to be more aggressive than females and the organizational effects of prenatal testosterone (T) appear to contribute to this sex difference. Low second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) isExpand
Finger length ratios (2D:4D) in anthropoids implicate reduced prenatal androgens in social bonding.
Test the relationship between digit ratios and behavior across nonhuman anthropoids; polygynous species, with higher levels of intrasexual competition, should have more pronounced markers of PAE (lower 2D:4D) than pair-bonded species, and results accord with those found in humans. Expand
Sex differences in 2D:4D and aggression in children and adolescents from five regions of Russia.
It is suggested that the associations between digit ratio and aggression in a sample of children and adolescents from five regions of Russia and self-ratings on physical aggression in boys, but not in girls may be due to sex differences in prenatal androgen secretion. Expand
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and physical fitness in males and females: Evidence for effects of prenatal androgens on sexually selected traits
2D:4D in males may be a negative correlate of frequent exercise which then relates to achievement in sports and athletics and physical fitness in both men and women. Expand
A preliminary investigation of the associations between personality, cognitive ability and digit ratio
Abstract The ratio between second and fourth digit lengths (digit ratio) is known to be sexually dimorphic, with males having lower values. It is believed that digit ratio acts as a marker ofExpand
A meta-analysis on 2D:4D and athletic prowess : substantial relationships but neither hand out-predicts the other
Abstract We meta-analyzed the literature on the relationship between the length ratio of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D), a putative negative correlate of prenatal testosterone (T) levels inExpand
Second to fourth digit ratio and male ability in sport: implications for sexual selection in humans.
  • J. Manning, R. Taylor
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Evolution and human behavior : official journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
  • 2001
It is suggested that prenatal and adult testosterone promotes the development and maintenance of traits which are useful in sports and athletics disciplines and in male:male fighting. Expand
Aggression, Digit Ratio, and Variation in the Androgen Receptor, Serotonin Transporter, and Dopamine D4 Receptor Genes in African Foragers: The Hadza
The results obtained were obtained for a human population that is still practicing foraging and has been subjected to a high selective pressure due to harsh environments and practically has no access to modern medical care. Expand
Digit Ratio (2D:4D): A Biomarker for Prenatal Sex Steroids and Adult Sex Steroids in Challenge Situations
It is hypothesized that 2D:4D correlates with organizing effects on the endocrine system that moderate activating effects in adulthood, and is particularly evident in “challenging” conditions such as aggressive and sexual encounters, in which individuals show increased levels of T. Expand