Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and dominance in the Hadza and the Datoga of Tanzania

  title={Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and dominance in the Hadza and the Datoga of Tanzania},
  author={Marina L. Butovskaya and Valentina N. Burkova and Dmitry V. Karelin and Bernhard Fink},
  journal={American Journal of Human Biology},
Digit ratio (2D:4D)—a putative marker of prenatal androgen activity—has been shown to correlate with self‐reported physical aggression and dominance behavior, especially in male children and adolescents. This evidence is derived primarily from the study of Western samples. 

Second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is unrelated to measures of somatic reproductive effort among young men from Cebu, the Philippines.

Test the hypothesis that the association of low 2D:4D ratios with increased muscularity and decreased adiposity depends on current testosterone (T) levels, such that digit ratio will be a particularly strong predictor of outcomes among men exhibiting a mating-effort-oriented endocrine profile (high T).

No sex difference in digit ratios (2D:4D) in the traditional Yali of Papua and its meaning for the previous hypotheses on the inter‐populational variability in 2D:4D

A study among the Yali, a traditional population from Papua, explores factors influencing the variability of 2D:4D, a sexually dimorphic trait in humans.

Association between second to fourth digit ratio and personality among Indian men

To examine the relationship between the personality domains with the second to fourth digit ratio (2d:4d); a prenatal testosterone exposure marker, a prenatalosterone exposure marker is used.

Association of the digit ratio (2D:4D) with sexually dimorphic morphological traits

The association of 2D:4D ratio with morphological signs of masculinity/femininity within male and female samples were revealed only as a trend, which was more distinct for the functional indicators (handgrip strength).

Hadza hunter-gatherer men do not have more masculine digit ratios (2D:4D).

These findings challenge the current view that lower 2D:4D in men is a uniform characteristic of the authors' species and may be related to known patterns of hormonal variation resulting from both genetic and environmental mechanisms.

2d:4d, Big Fives and Aggression in Young Men of Caucasian, Ural and Asian Origin

According to modern views on human bio-sociality, Big Five personality traits have been shaped in the process of human evolution and their expression is an outcome of the complex interaction of

No Association between 2D:4D Ratio and Hunting Success among Hadza Hunters

A novel method of assessing hunting reputation is employed that, unlike previous methods, allows granular distinctions to be made between hunters at all levels of perceived ability and provides no support for the theorized relationship between 2D:4D ratio and hunting skill.

Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) and digit ratio associates with aggression: comparison in seven ethnic groups

The data suggest that both oxytocin ( OXTR gene polymorphism) and fetal testosterone (2D:4D) may significantly affect emotional (anger) and cognitive (hostility) aggression in humans, given the leveling the role of culture.



Digit ratio (2D:4D), dominance, reproductive success, asymmetry, and sociosexuality in the BBC Internet Study

  • J. ManningB. Fink
  • Psychology
    American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 2008
The BBC Internet Study of sex differences in which finger lengths were self‐measured shows sexual dimorphism, ethnic differences and higherDimorphism of right 2D:4D than left, thereby indicating that 2D-4D does measure real between‐participant variation.

Finger length ratios (2D:4D) in anthropoids implicate reduced prenatal androgens in social bonding.

Test the relationship between digit ratios and behavior across nonhuman anthropoids; polygynous species, with higher levels of intrasexual competition, should have more pronounced markers of PAE (lower 2D:4D) than pair-bonded species, and results accord with those found in humans.

Sex differences in 2D:4D and aggression in children and adolescents from five regions of Russia.

It is suggested that the associations between digit ratio and aggression in a sample of children and adolescents from five regions of Russia and self-ratings on physical aggression in boys, but not in girls may be due to sex differences in prenatal androgen secretion.

Second to fourth digit ratio and male ability in sport: implications for sexual selection in humans.

  • J. ManningR. Taylor
  • Education
    Evolution and human behavior : official journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
  • 2001

Aggression, Digit Ratio, and Variation in the Androgen Receptor, Serotonin Transporter, and Dopamine D4 Receptor Genes in African Foragers: The Hadza

The results obtained were obtained for a human population that is still practicing foraging and has been subjected to a high selective pressure due to harsh environments and practically has no access to modern medical care.

Digit Ratio (2D:4D): A Biomarker for Prenatal Sex Steroids and Adult Sex Steroids in Challenge Situations

It is hypothesized that 2D:4D correlates with organizing effects on the endocrine system that moderate activating effects in adulthood, and is particularly evident in “challenging” conditions such as aggressive and sexual encounters, in which individuals show increased levels of T.