Diffusion of Disc Golf Courses in the United States*

  title={Diffusion of Disc Golf Courses in the United States*},
  author={Ray Oldakowski and John W. mcewen},
  journal={Geographical Review},
  pages={355 - 371}
This paper examines the diffusion of disc golf across the continental U.S. We provide a descriptive analysis of the spatial distribution of the sport beginning with its formal inception in 1975 through 2010. We investigate the role of common macro‐level factors in determining the diffusion of sports facilities, such as population and land availability. We also consider the role of micro‐level factors in influencing the diffusion of disc golf at the individual level. Our results demonstrate that… 

The Future of Disc Golf

  • J. Woods
  • Education
    Emerging Sports as Social Movements
  • 2021
In this chapter, I review the book’s key ideas and use them to theorize the future of the sport. In the next two decades, disc golf will likely experience consistent growth driven partly by

Normative Bridges and Barriers in the Framing of Emerging Sports Movements

  • J. Woods
  • Education
    Sociological Spectrum
  • 2019
Abstract Why have some small, emerging sports communities grown faster than others? To begin answering this question, the analysis presented here considers the case of disc golf, a flying disc sport

The Framing of Disc Golf in News Media

  • J. Woods
  • Sociology
    Emerging Sports as Social Movements
  • 2021
Ultimately, the future of a sport depends on people’s perceptions of it. Even a sport movement with promising internal characteristics—a cohesive culture, a pronounced identity, strong leadership,

Emergent Specters and Disruptive Play in the Production of Disc Golf

ABSTRACT Disc golf is experiencing immense recent growth that, in 2020, noticeably outpaced the steady growth seen in the sport over the past decade. This spirited movement has vaulted disc golf into

An assessment of the relevance of landscape architecture and disc golf

This project used literature synthesis, analysis of existing data, and three types of exploratory designs to answer the questions and showed that landscape architects can add value to disc golf course design and development through their skillsets and process.

The associations between traditional and social media and the growth of non-normative sports

Abstract This study examines relationships between media and the growth of disc golf. Using the 50 United States as units of analysis, four indicators of disc golf activity are measured. The volume

Growth without Commercialization: Regional Patterns in Participation Rates and Media Coverage

  • J. Woods
  • Education
    Emerging Sports as Social Movements
  • 2021
The previous chapter dovetails into this chapter, where I examine the relationship between the framing of disc golf in the news media and its popularity across the fifty United States. News

Social Media and the Growth of Disc Golf

  • J. Woods
  • Sociology
    Emerging Sports as Social Movements
  • 2021
While experiences in online communities produced both integrative and disruptive social forces, as shown in the previous chapter and other studies, this chapter argues that digital interactions have

A Social Movement

  • J. Woods
  • Sociology
    Emerging Sports as Social Movements
  • 2021
Research on emerging sports focuses primarily on participants’ lifestyles, motives, modes of expression, and consumption. Few scholars have examined sports as social movements. With this chapter, I

Disparities in disc golf course distribution in the United States

To what extent are racial, socioeconomic and health characteristics of US counties associated with access to a specific recreational resource – disc golf courses? We contribute to the literature by...



Expansion of Golf Courses in the United States*

ABSTRACT. Twenty‐five million Americans play golf on the nation's 16,000 courses each year. These golf courses constitute a significant national landscape feature. Since 1878, when the game arrived

The Face of the Game: African Americans' Spatial Accessibility to Golf

This paper investigates the spatial accessibility of African Americans to golf as an example of continued social injustice. Because of its developmental diversity, demographic diversity, and rich

Separate But Equal? Desegregating Baltimore's Golf Courses*

ABSTRACT. Between the time of its opening, in 1923, and 1956, when the last vestiges of official segregation were swept away by the courts, the Carroll Park Municipal Golf Course in Baltimore,

Carolina Thunder Revisited: Toward a Transcultural View of Winston Cup Racing

Abstract Almost three decades ago, cultural geographer Richard Pillsbury documented the national expansion of NASCAR and what he considered the erosion of major-league stock car racing as a unique

Municipal Golf and Civil Rights in the United States, 1910-1965

  • G. B. Kirsch
  • History
    The Journal of African American History
  • 2007
Early on the morning of 7 December 1955, Dr. George C. Simkins, Jr., an African American dentist from Greensboro, North Carolina, gathered with five of his friends for a regular Wednesday round of

‘Just a sport made up in a car park?’: the ‘soft’ landscape of Ultimate Frisbee

Consideration of the sporting landscape within which an activity takes place is an aspect that is often taken for granted but close inspection can reveal a wealth of information that is easily found,

Sites of Sport: Space, Place, Experience

The study of built environments such as gymnasiums, football stadiums, swimmimg pools and skating rinks provides unique information about the historical enclosure of the gendered and sexualised body,

Dialed In? Geographic Expansion and Regional Identity in NASCAR's Nextel Cup Series

In recent years, NASCAR (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing) has undertaken an aggressive campaign of geographic expansion. With the hopes of becoming a national sport, new races have

Football and the politics of place: Football Club Barcelona and Catalonia, 1975–2005

Although Football Club Barcelona has been closely tied to Barcelona and Catalonia throughout its history, the narrative of that relationship has varied. Those narratives provide different

Exercise Time: Gender Differences in the Effects of Marriage, Parenthood, and Employment

Using data from a supplement to the 1995 National Health Interview Survey, this article examines the relationship among three major work and family roles—marriage, parenthood, and employment—and time