Detection of IL-9 producing T cells in the PBMCs of allergic asthmatic patients
Naïve CD4(+) T cells are activated and differentiate to distinct lineages of T helper (Th) cells, which are involved in physiological and pathological processes by obtaining the potential to produce different lineage-specific cytokines that mediate adaptive immunity. In the past decade, our knowledge of Th cells has been significantly expanded with the findings of new lineages. Interleukin (IL)-9 producing T cells are recently identified. In consideration of the ability to preferentially secret IL-9, these cells are termed Th9 cells. Given the multiple function of IL-9, Th9 cells participate in the lesion of many diseases, such as allergic inflammation, tumor, and parasitosis. In this chapter, we will focus on the cytokines, co-stimulatory factors, and transcriptional signaling pathways, which regulate Th9 cells development as well as stability, plasticity, and the multiple roles of Th9 cells in vivo.