Differentiation and functional maturation of human CD14(+) adherent peripheral blood monocytes by xenogeneic endothelial cells: up-regulation of costimulation, cytokine generation, and toll-like receptors.


BACKGROUND Dendritic cells (DCs) can be generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after stimulation with exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin (IL)-4. Further, extravasation of monocytes through human endothelial cells can also cause differentiation, maturation, and expression of DC-specific phenotype… (More)


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