Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) Autoamplifies its Production Through EP1 Subtype of PGE Receptor in Mouse Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells
Regulation of mRNA levels for the constitutive and inducible prostaglandin endoperoxide synthases, PGHS-1 and PGHS-2, was examined in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Serum induction of PGHS-2 mRNA levels was rapid, transient, increased by cycloheximide, and inhibited 72% by cortisol. The cortisol inhibition was blocked by cycloheximide. Serum stimulation of PGHS-1 mRNA was slower, decreased by cycloheximide, and inhibited 28% by cortisol. Increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and induction of PGHS-2 immunoreactive protein paralleled changes in PGHS-2 mRNA. PGHS-2 mRNA was induced at 2 h in serum-free cells by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and, to a lesser extent, by forskolin. The combination of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and forskolin was synergistic. TGF-beta induction was prolonged compared with serum, inhibited 67% by cortisol, and the inhibition was not blocked by cycloheximide. TGF-alpha had little effect on PGHS-2 mRNA at 2 h, but the combination of TGF-beta and TGF-alpha was synergistic for PGHS-1 and PGHS-2. PGE2 itself induced PGHS-2 mRNA, and inhibition of PGE2 production decreased the serum induction by 55%, suggesting an important role for autoamplification. The rapidity and amplitude of changes in PGHS-2 suggest that it may be involved in bone responses to acute stresses, such as mechanical strain, inflammation, and injury.