Differential psychopathology and patterns of cerebral glucose utilisation produced by (S)- and (R)-ketamine in healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET)

@article{Vollenweider1997DifferentialPA,
  title={Differential psychopathology and patterns of cerebral glucose utilisation produced by (S)- and (R)-ketamine in healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET)},
  author={Franz X. Vollenweider and Klaus Leonhard Leenders and Ivar {\O}ye and Daniel Hell and Jules Angst},
  journal={European Neuropsychopharmacology},
  year={1997},
  volume={7},
  pages={25-38}
}
Effects of ketamine on anterior cingulate glutamate metabolism in healthy humans: a 4-T proton MRS study.
TLDR
In humans as in animals, an acute hypofunctional NMDAR state is associated with increased glutamatergic activity in the anterior cingulate and this increase was not related to schizophrenia-like positive or negative symptoms but was marginally related to Stroop performance.
Reduction of dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in the striatum after a single administration of esketamine, but not R-ketamine: a PET study in conscious monkeys
TLDR
It is suggested that unlike to R-ketamine, esketamine can cause dopamine release in the striatum, and that its release might be associated with psychotomimetic effects of esketamines.
Ketamine does not decrease striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding in man
TLDR
This controlled study indicates that ketamine does not decrease striatal [11C]raclopride binding, andstriatal dopamine release is of minor importance in the psychosis-like effects of ketamine.
Reviewing the ketamine model for schizophrenia
TLDR
It is concluded that ketamine challenge is useful for studying the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms, dopaminergic and GABAergic dysfunction, age of onset, functional dysconnectivity, and abnormal cortical oscillations observed in acute schizophrenia.
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TLDR
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