The incidence and prevalence of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) or neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) has been increasing recently, especially in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Recently, these tumours were classified into G1, G2 and G3/neuroendocrine (NEC) based upon mitotic counts or Ki-67 labelling index [World Health Organization (WHO), 2010]. This is because the clinical outcome of patients with NEN is largely determined by this newly developed histological and of Malignant Tumours (TNM). However, controversies exist as to the surrogate markers of novel target specific therapies and further subclassification of G3/NEC because of different responses by these patients to platinum-based chemotherapy. In particular, the former relates to the markers of somatostatin analogues and/ or inhibitors, while the latter relates to optimal cut-off points of Ki-67 labelling index or the inclusion of histological features of the tumour cells, such as small cell carcinoma in NEC or G3 cases. In addition, it is also important for clinicians to recognise that there are two different TNM classifications, WHO versus ENET, which could yield different stages in the same patients with pancreatic NET. Molecular studies of NETs/NEN have revealed several putative prognostic markers or putative therapeutic targets including Id, ATM, SRC, , heat shock protein 90 and. Endocrinologists should be aware that currently, the clinical algorhythm of NEN patients, especially treatment decisions, is not necessarily based on hormonal features, but rather pathological and molecular features of the disorder.