Differential innervation of protruder and retractor muscles of the tongue in rat.


Protrusion and retraction of the tongue are essential components of such orofacial behaviors as mastication, respiration, and swallowing. Stimulation of the medial branch of the hypoglossal nerve yields tongue protrusion, while stimulation of the lateral branch yields tongue retraction in rat. We exploited the transsynaptic transport capabilities of… (More)