OBJECTIVE We investigated differences between singleton and twin gestations in immune mediators in midtrimester amniotic fluid. STUDY DESIGN Amniotic fluid from 252 singleton and 46 twin gestations were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for interleukin-1beta, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitric oxide, Clara cell protein 16, leptin, and the 70-kDa heat shock protein. A subset of amniotic fluid was also tested for leukemia inhibitory factor, angiogenin, and migration inhibitory factor-related protein 8 and migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman rank correlation. RESULTS Median concentrations of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-4, Clara cell protein 16, leptin, and angiogenin were increased in amniotic fluid from twins; median levels of the 70-kDa heat shock protein, leukemia inhibitory factor, migration inhibitory factor-related protein 8, and migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14 were highest in amniotic fluid from singletons (P < .001). CONCLUSION Elevated levels of immune activators may contribute to the increased rate of preterm premature rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm birth in twin populations.