Differential expression of endogenous plant cell wall degrading enzyme genes in the stick insect (Phasmatodea) midgut

@article{Shelomi2014DifferentialEO,
  title={Differential expression of endogenous plant cell wall degrading enzyme genes in the stick insect (Phasmatodea) midgut},
  author={Matan Shelomi and W. Cameron Jasper and Joel Atallah and Lynn Siri Kimsey and Brian R Johnson},
  journal={BMC Genomics},
  year={2014},
  volume={15}
}
BackgroundStick and leaf insects (Phasmatodea) are an exclusively leaf-feeding order of insects with no record of omnivory, unlike other “herbivorous” Polyneoptera. They represent an ideal system for investigating the adaptations necessary for obligate folivory, including plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). However, their physiology and internal anatomy is poorly understood, with limited genomic resources available.ResultsWe de novo assembled transcriptomes for the anterior and… 
Ancestral gene duplication enabled the evolution of multifunctional cellulases in stick insects (Phasmatodea).
The Draft Genome of the Invasive Walking Stick, Medauroidea extradendata, Reveals Extensive Lineage-Specific Gene Family Expansions of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes in Phasmatodea
TLDR
The genome of a walking stick, Medauroidea extradentata, an obligate herbivore that makes uses of endogenously produced plant cell wall degrading enzymes will be a useful resource for comparative evolutionary studies with herbivores in many other clades and will help elucidate the mechanisms by which metazoans breakdown plantcell wall components.
The draft genome of the invasive walking stick, Medauroidea extradendata, reveals extensive lineage-specific gene family expansions of cell wall degrading enzymes in Phasmatodea
TLDR
The genome of a walking stick, Medauroidea extradentata, an obligate herbivore that makes uses of endogenously produced plant cell wall degrading enzymes will be a useful resource for comparative evolutionary studies with herbivores in many other clades and will help elucidate the mechanisms by which metazoans breakdown plantcell wall components.
De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of the Common New Zealand Stick Insect Clitarchus hookeri (Phasmatodea) Reveals Genes Involved in Olfaction, Digestion and Sexual Reproduction
TLDR
The C. hookeri reference transcriptome, together with identified gene families, provides a comprehensive resource for studying the evolution of sensory perception, digestive systems, and reproductive success in phasmids.
Multifunctional cellulase enzymes are ancestral in Polyneoptera
TLDR
Having multiple, multifunctional cellulase genes is an ancestral state for Polyneoptera and possibly Insecta, plus a large group of cellulase‐like enzymes found in nearly all insect orders with no discernible digestive ability.
A comparison of ten digestive enzymes reveals a lack of chitinase in a phasmid and the loss of two β‐glucanases in a mantid
TLDR
Differences in activity ratios between phasmids and mantids are not associated with the obligate phytophagous or carnivorous diet and are within the normal range of other paurometabolous insects.
Contrasting diets reveal metabolic plasticity in the tree-killing beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae)
TLDR
Results indicate that A. glabripennis modulates digestive and basal gene expression when larvae are feeding in a nutrient-poor, yet suitable host plant compared to a tractable and nutrient-rich diet that is free of plant defensive compounds.
Direct evidence for a new mode of plant defense against insects via a novel polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein expression strategy
TLDR
It is demonstrated that BrPGIP3_GPI inhibited several P. cochleariae PGs in vitro, providing the first direct evidence of an interaction between a plant PGIP and an animal PG, and may also aid in defense against herbivorous beetles.
Pectin Digestion in Herbivorous Beetles: Impact of Pseudoenzymes Exceeds That of Their Active Counterparts
TLDR
The impact of pseudoenzymes on the pectin-digesting pathway in Phytophaga beetles exceeds even the influence of their active counterparts, such as a lowered efficiency of food-to-energy conversion and a prolongation of the developmental period.
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