SUMMARY Sialyltransferases sialylate plasma glycoproteins in hepatocytes and may (as hepatic key enzymes) constitute markers for liver diseases. We examined expression of the prevalent alpha2,6 sialyltransferase (ST6Gal I) and sialoglycans in normal liver, cirrhotic liver, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using a new ST6Gal I-specific mAb and recombinant fusion proteins of CD22 and sialoadhesin recognizing alpha2,6- or alpha2,3-sialylated glycans in immunohistology and flow cytometry. In normal and cirrhotic liver, ST6Gal I and sialoglycans were localized in the Golgi region of hepatocytes surrounding the bile canaliculi and along the bile canaliculi, respectively. Sialoglycans were additionally recognized in Kupffer cells, bile ducts, endothelial cells, and oval cells. Well-differentiated and moderately differentiated HCC showed Golgi and diffuse cytoplasmic staining of ST6Gal I and sialoglycans, whereas the cytoplasmic staining for ST6Gal I and sialoglycans was decreased or even absent in poorly differentiated HCC. Detection of sialoglycans by the recombinant fusion proteins in Western blots of cell lysates derived from cell lines revealed two major double bands of sialoglycoproteins at 65 and 120 kDa for hepatocytes, three major bands at 54, 49, and 44 kDa for colonic epithelial cells, and one band at 60 kDa for endothelial cells. Our results describe the expression patterns of ST6Gal I and sialoglycans in various liver tissues and demonstrate an altered expression of these structures between benign and malignant hepatocellular lesions.