Differential effects of prolonged restraint stress on proenkephalin gene expression in the brainstem.


Enkephalins have been discovered in various regions of the brain involved in cardiovascular regulation. The primary source of plasma Met-enkephalin released in response to stress, appears to be from sympathetic nerves. However, levels of Met-enkephalin are 2-3-fold higher at 2 min versus 30 min of restraint stress. Therefore, the purpose of this… (More)


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