Antiobesity Effects of an Edible Halophyte Nitraria retusa Forssk in 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Differentiation and in C57B6J/L Mice Fed a High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity
Flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds that exist widely in plants, inhibit cell proliferation and increase cell differentiation in many cancerous and noncancerous cell lines. Because terminal differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes depends on proliferation of both pre- and postconfluent preadipocytes, we predicted that flavonoids would inhibit adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line. The flavonoids genistein and naringenin inhibited proliferation of preconfluent preadipocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. When added to 2-day postconfluent preadipocytes at the induction of differentiation, genistein inhibited mitotic clonal expansion, triglyceride accumulation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression, but naringenin had no effect. The antiadipogenic effect of genistein was not due to inhibition of insulin receptor subtrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. When added 3 days after induction of differentiation, neither flavonoid inhibited differentiation. In fully differentiated adipocytes, genistein increased basal and epinephrine-induced lipolysis, but naringenin had no significant effects. These data demonstrate that genistein and naringenin, despite structural similarity, have differential effects on adipogenesis and adipocyte lipid metabolism.