Differential effects of amphetamine isomers on dopamine release in the rat striatum and nucleus accumbens core

@article{Glaser2004DifferentialEO,
  title={Differential effects of amphetamine isomers on dopamine release in the rat striatum and nucleus accumbens core},
  author={Paul E. A. Glaser and Theresa C. Thomas and B. Matthew Joyce and Francisco Xavier Castellanos and Greg A. Gerhardt},
  journal={Psychopharmacology},
  year={2004},
  volume={178},
  pages={250-258}
}
RationaleCurrent medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include some single isomer compounds [dextroamphetamine (d-amphetamine, dexedrine) and dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)] and some racemic compounds [methylphenidate and mixed-salts amphetamine (Adderall)]. Adderall, which contains approximately 25% l-amphetamine, has been successfully marketed as a first-line medication for ADHD. Although different clinical effects have been observed for d-amphetamine, Adderall, and… 
Adderall® produces increased striatal dopamine release and a prolonged time course compared to amphetamine isomers
TLDR
The hypothesis that the combination of amphetamine enantiomers and salts in Adderall has effects onDA release, which result in increased and prolonged DA release, compared to d- and d,l-amphetamine is supported.
Amphetamine, past and present – a pharmacological and clinical perspective
TLDR
The review charts advances in pharmaceutical development from the introduction of once-daily formulations of amphetamine through to lisdexamfetamine, which is the first d-amphetamine prodrug approved for the management of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults.
The role of the plasmalemmal dopamine and vesicular monoamine transporters in methamphetamine‐induced dopaminergic deficits
TLDR
This review focuses on the effects of AMPH and METH on the plasmalemmal dopamine transporter and the vesicular monoamine transporter‐2 in animal models with a particular emphasis on how these effects, which may vary for the different stereoisomers, contribute to persistent dopaminergic deficits.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
TLDR
The efficacy and safety of five of the more novel long-acting pharmacological treatments recently approved by the FDA for marketing in the US for paediatric ADHD, along with an α2-adrenoceptor agonist in preparation are considered.
Preweaning Mn exposure leads to prolonged astrocyte activation and lasting effects on the dopaminergic system in adult male rats
TLDR
It is shown that preweaning Mn exposure leads to lasting molecular and functional impacts in multiple brain regions of adult animals, long after brain Mn levels returned to normal.
5 The Neuropsychopharmacology of Stimulants : Dopamine and ADHD
TLDR
This chapter considers the neuropsychopharmacology of ADHD in general and dopamine and the stimulants more specifically and new data that utilizes the technique of reverse microdialysis to demonstrate how different the dose-response curves are for dopamine release in the striatum following local application of the different stimulants.
The Neuropsychopharmacology of Stimulants: Dopamine and ADHD
TLDR
This chapter considers the neuropsychopharmacology of ADHD in general and dopamine and the stimulants more specifically and new data that utilizes the technique of reverse microdialysis to demonstrate how different the dose-response curves are for dopamine release in the striatum following local application of the different stimulants.
Neuropharmacology of Attention‐Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
This chapter provides an overview of various treatment options for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). While methylphenidate in various forms remains the mainstay of pharmacological
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 43 REFERENCES
Locomotor effects of acute and repeated threshold doses of amphetamine and methylphenidate: relative roles of dopamine and norepinephrine.
  • R. KuczenskiD. Segal
  • Psychology, Biology
    The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics
  • 2001
TLDR
Evidence is provided that low-dose stimulant administration can result in the development of behavioral sensitization, which is evident in the subsequent behavioral response to the drug.
Hippocampus norepinephrine, caudate dopamine and serotonin, and behavioral responses to the stereoisomers of amphetamine and methamphetamine
TLDR
The results of these studies indicate that, while the dopamine, norepinephrine and 5-HT responses to these drugs probably contribute to the expression of stimulant-induced behaviors, simple relationships between the neurotransmitter responses and the behavioral profiles were not evident.
DISTINCT PHARMACOLOGICAL REGULATION OF EVOKED DOPAMINE EFFLUX IN THE AMYGDALA AND STRIATUM OF THE RAT IN VIVO
TLDR
The pharmacological regulation of evoked extracellular dopamine was compared in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BAN) and caudate-putamen (CP) of the urethane-anesthetized rat and the results support the view that the pharmacologicalregulation of ext racellular dopamine is regionally distinct in the brain.
Comparison between intraperitoneal and oral methylphenidate administration: A microdialysis and locomotor activity study.
TLDR
It is shown that relatively low doses of MP significantly increase extracellular DA and locomotor activity and indicates that the differences in the neurochemical and behavioral effects of MP between the intragastric and the i.p. routes are due to central drug bioavailability.
Differences between (+)- and (−)-amphetamine in effects on locomotor activity and l-dopa potentiating action in mice
TLDR
There does not exist a close correlation between the l-Dopa-potentiating action of the amphetamines and their stimulating properties per se.
A comparison of dextro-amphetamine and racemic-amphetamine in the treatment of the hyperkinetic syndrome or minimal brain dysfunction.
  • M. Gross
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Diseases of the nervous system
  • 1976
TLDR
It was found that although on the average dextro-amphetamine as well as methylphenidate was significantly superior to racemic-amphetamine, with side effects about the same, in some cases racemia-amphetamine was superior to both dextra-amphetamine and methyl phenidate.
Differences in Dopamine Clearance and Diffusion in Rat Striatum and Nucleus Accumbens Following Systemic Cocaine Administration
TLDR
In vivo electrochemical recordings in anesthetized rats in conjunction with a paradigm that measures dopamine clearance and diffusion suggest that a difference in dopamine uptake may explain the greater sensitivity of nucleus accumbens to cocaine as compared with dorsal striatum.
...
...