Differential diagnosis of three common Ixodes spp. ticks infesting songbirds of Western Europe: Ixodes arboricola, I. frontalis and I. ricinus.

@article{Heylen2014DifferentialDO,
  title={Differential diagnosis of three common Ixodes spp. ticks infesting songbirds of Western Europe: Ixodes arboricola, I. frontalis and I. ricinus.},
  author={Dieter J. A. Heylen and Eliane De Coninck and Famke Jansen and Maxime Madder},
  journal={Ticks and tick-borne diseases},
  year={2014},
  volume={5 6},
  pages={693-700}
}
The three most common Ixodes spp. ticks found on songbirds in Western Europe are Ixodes frontalis, I. arboricola and I. ricinus. As the latter species is a generalist, it shares several avian hosts with the two strictly ornithophilic species. Infestations of the three species can overlap in time and space, implying that tick-borne pathogens maintained by… CONTINUE READING