Differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

@article{Geldmacher1997DifferentialDO,
  title={Differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease},
  author={David S Geldmacher and Peter Whitehouse},
  journal={Neurology},
  year={1997},
  volume={48},
  pages={2S - 9S}
}
Article abstract-Accurate diagnosis of dementia is essential to provide appropriate treatment as well as patient and family counseling. It may be difficult to differentiate dementia from delirium. In addition, several features distinguish dementia from depression, but the two can coexist and the distinction may be uncertain. Dementias can be grouped into two categories: dementia that presents without prominent motor signs and dementia that presents with prominent motor signs. Dementias without… 

Tables from this paper

Parkinson's disease with late Pick's dementia
TLDR
A case in which typical clinical features of idiopathic Parkinson's disease existed for seven years prior to the development of significant behavioral and cognitive changes and severe dementia, and illustrates that Pick's disease is one such cause.
Dementia and Its Implications for Public Health
TLDR
Dementia represents a diverse category of syndromes characterized by deficits in memory, cognitive function, and behavior and recent advances in the treatment of dementia may slow the course of cognitive decline, thereby enhancing the quality of life of older individuals as well as decreasing costs associated with institutional care.
Is Mild Cognitive Impairment Prodromal for Vascular Dementia Like Alzheimer’s Disease?
TLDR
In some VaD subtypes, particularly those caused by subcortical microvascular disease, dementia may be preceded by MCI, which has similar domains of cognitive impairment and a similar progressive course that may mimic AD.
Reversible dementias
TLDR
The review addresses the common causes of reversible dementia and the studies published so far and finds depression is by far the most common of the potentially reversible conditions.
Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementia Disorders
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other dementia disorders are characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities that interferes with daily functioning. Cognitive symptoms consist of progressive decline
Assessment of Suspected Dementia
TLDR
The growing list of other diagnostic measures with potential usefulness in diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease or dementia in general was reviewed, but the evidence was judged as insufficient to support routine use of these tests by physicians.
Early onset frontotermporal dementia and alzheimers disease: diagnosis, treatment and care
TLDR
FTD is a valid and useful diagnostic category, and can be reliably differentiated from AD, and FTD patients were found to deteriorate more rapidly than AD patients, and to have significantly increased behavioural disturbances throughout the course of the illness in comparison with the AD patients.
Prevalence of potentially reversible dementias and actual reversibility in a memory clinic cohort.
TLDR
Both potential and actual reversibility of dementia was low in these memory clinic patients and patients whose condition improved with intervention had early and milder cognitive deficits, which suggests that thorough evaluation of early memory loss is warranted.
Dementia Screening and Surveillance
TLDR
A neuropsychological examination is necessary to establish the diagnosis of early degenerative dementias and there is promising evidence for the predictive value of some specific tests for Alzheimer’s disease.
Assessment and Treatment of Dementia in Medical Patients
TLDR
A framework for clinicians to assess and treat dementia in medical patients is provided and a practical approach to the prescribing of cholinesterase inhibitors in patients with concomitant medical conditions is described.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 66 REFERENCES
Cortical Lewy body dementia: clinical features and classification.
Seven patients, aged 65-72 years, are described with dementia and cortical Lewy bodies. In one patient a Parkinsonian syndrome was followed by dementia and motor neuron disease. In the remaining six
Neuropsychological deficits in vascular dementia vs Alzheimer's disease. Frontal lobe deficits prominent in vascular dementia.
TLDR
The Writing sub Test of the WAB, the Picture Arrangement subtest of the WAIS-R, and the Motor Performance sub test of the MDRS were the best discriminators of AD and VAD in the overall and severely affected populations.
Lewy body disease and dementia. A review.
TLDR
The English-language literature dealing with the clinical and pathological features of DLBD was reviewed and pathological material from the Canadian Brain Tissue Bank, Toronto, Ontario, was reviewed over a 2-year period from 1991 through 1993.
Clinical and neuropathological criteria for frontotemporal dementia. The Lund and Manchester Groups.
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
  • 1994
TLDR
The clinical and pathological criteria for frontotemporal dementia are described and future studies may indicate that there is a spectrum of non-specific histology involving both, or alternatively, that each may reflect a distinct process governed by different genetic or molecular mechanisms.
Diffuse Lewy body disease: clinical features in 15 cases.
Fifteen cases of diffuse Lewy body disease were diagnosed on pathological grounds during a single year in one health district. The range and frequency of clinical features contrast strikingly with
The natural history of Alzheimer's disease. Description of study cohort and accuracy of diagnosis.
TLDR
It is indicated that longitudinal follow-up of demented cases increases accuracy of diagnosis, and that detailed cognitive testing aids in early classification, in a natural history study of Alzheimer's disease.
The Lewy body variant of Alzheimer's disease
TLDR
The patients with LBs appeared to constitute a distinct neuropathologic and clinical subset of AD, the Lewy body variant (LBV), and there was an increase in essential tremor, bradykinesia, mild neck rigidity, and slowing of rapid alternating movements in the LBV group.
The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Part X. Neuropathology Confirmation of the Clinical Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease
TLDR
Despite the relatively high level of clinical diagnostic accuracy, further refinement of assessment batteries may facilitate distinction of non-AD dementias from AD.
A potential noninvasive neurobiological test for Alzheimer's disease.
TLDR
It is reported that patients diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's disease by standard clinical criteria exhibited a marked hypersensitivity in their pupil dilation response to a cholinergic antagonist, tropicamide, placed in their eyes.
Neuropsychological detection and characterization of preclinical Alzheimer's disease
TLDR
Results lend support to the notion of a preclinical phase of AD and indicate that this very early stage of AD is characterized by poor word-finding ability, abstract reasoning, and memory.
...
...