Adding Biotin to Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Without Lipid Accelerates the Growth of Candida albicans
Targeting fluconazole therapy to achieve predefined pharmacodynamic goals has been suggested as a means of optimizing the treatment of patients with candidaemia. However, data regarding species-specific dosing targets are inconclusive. We retrospectively analysed a cohort of 75 adult patients with Candida bloodstream infection (BSI) who received initial treatment with fluconazole for ≥48 h (36 Candida albicans and 39 non-albicans Candida (NAC)). Fluconazole dose, the dose/MIC ratio and the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24)/MIC ratio were determined for each patient, and classification and regression tree analysis was used to determine breakpoints for significant interactions with 30-day survival. Both fluconazole exposure parameters and patient-related and disease-related variables were assessed in univariable and multivariable survival models. The crude 30-day mortality rate was 32% (44% and 21% for C. albicans and NAC, respectively). An average fluconazole dose of >200 mg/day, a dose/MIC ratio of >400 and an AUC24/MIC ratio of >400 were associated with a higher 30-day survival rate and better microbiological response in patients with C. albicans BSI but not in those with NAC BSI. Baseline chronic kidney disease was a risk factor for fluconazole underdosing and mortality. Severity of sepsis (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score) was the only significant predictor of death in patients with NAC BSI. We conclude that, although pharmacodynamic target-directed fluconazole dosing may help to optimize outcomes for patients with C. albicans BSI, additional studies are needed to define the role of fluconazole in the treatment of NAC BSI.