Anticancer chemotherapy (CT) produces non-desirable effects on normal healthy cells and tissues. Oxaliplatin is widely used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and responsible for the development of sensory neuropathy in varying degrees, from complete tolerance to chronic neuropathic symptoms. We studied the differential gene expression of peripheral leukocytes in patients receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy to find genes and pathways involved in oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. Circulating white cells were obtained prior and after three cycles of FOLFOX or CAPOX chemotherapy from two groups of patients: with or without neuropathy. RNA was purified, and transcriptomes were analyzed. Differential transcriptomics revealed a total of 502 genes, which were significantly up- or down-regulated as a result of chemotherapy treatment. Nine of those genes were expressed in only one of two situations: CSHL1, GH1, KCMF1, IL36G and EFCAB8 turned off after CT, and CSRP2, IQGAP1, GNRH2, SMIM1 and C5orf17 turned on after CT. These genes are likely to be associated with the onset of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. The quantification of their expression in peripheral white cells may help to predict non-desirable side effects and, consequently, allow a better, more personalized chemotherapy.