A new model for biofilm formation and inflammatory tissue reaction: intraoperative infection of a cranial implant with Staphylococcus aureus in rats
UNLABELLED Neuronal transplantation is a promising experimental treatment approach for intractable epilepsies, but rejection of porcine or human cells in rodent epilepsy models requires adequate immunosuppression to enable long-term survival of xenografts. The commonly used immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) itself was suggested to affect seizure thresholds. However, putative pro- or anticonvulsant effects of CsA have not yet been sufficiently explored in a direct comparison study involving different preparations, dosages, and application routes. We therefore comprehensively investigated the effects of acute versus chronic treatment using different dosages (5mg/kg, 10mg/kg), application routes (i.p., s.c.), and preparations of CsA (pure substance solved in polyethoxylated castor oil and a ready-to-use drug additionally containing ethanol) on acute seizure thresholds in rats in the pentylenetetrazole seizure threshold test and verified the most harmless protocol in the chronic amygdala-kindling model for temporal lobe epilepsy. None of the CsA treatment regimens induced acute changes of seizure thresholds. Chronic CsA treatment also did not robustly change seizure thresholds. As evaluated by whole blood analyses, bioavailability of CsA was significantly higher after i.p. application of the ready-to-use preparation compared to the pure substance and compared to s.c. APPLICATION Observed adverse effects differed between CsA treatment regimens and included reversible diarrhea, lowered body temperature, and tremor, the latter two of which were also induced by vehicle injections containing ethanol and/or polyethoxylated castor oil. Our data suggest that chronic treatment (2 weeks) with 10mg/kg CsA injected i.p. in the ready-to-use preparation is an appropriate protocol for use in neural transplantation in epilepsy research applying the presently used rat models. Transplantation studies in experimental epilepsy research require a careful assessment of putative CsA effects on seizure thresholds in the specific experimental settings to be used.