Different modifications of phosphorylated Smad3C and Smad3L through TGF-β after spinal cord injury in mice.


Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and is expressed in the injured spinal cord. TGF-β signals through receptors to activate Smad proteins, which translocate into the nucleus. In the present study, we investigated the chronological alterations and cellular locations of the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway following spinal cord… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.05.042


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