Differences in Finger Length Ratios Between Self-Identified “Butch” and “Femme” Lesbians

  title={Differences in Finger Length Ratios Between Self-Identified “Butch” and “Femme” Lesbians},
  author={Windy M. Brown and Christopher J Finn and Bradley M. Cooke and S. Marc Breedlove},
  journal={Archives of Sexual Behavior},
There is indirect evidence that heightened exposure to early androgen may increase the probability that a girl will develop a homosexual orientation in adulthood. One such putative marker of early androgen exposure is the ratio of the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring finger (4D), which is smaller in male humans than in females, and is smaller in lesbians than in heterosexual women. Yet there is also evidence that women may have different sexual orientations at different times in… 
Finger-Length Ratios in Female Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Sexual Orientation
Differences in 2D:4D ratio suggest that MZ twins share virtually the same genes, and lower ratio in lesbians is a result of differences in prenatal environment.
Sexual Orientation, Sexual Arousal, and Finger Length Ratios in Women
Women’s sexual and behavioral traits, and potential anatomical traits, are possibly masculinized at different stages of gestation, possibly due to their sex-atypical masculinization during prenatal development.
Physical Development and Sexual Orientation in Men and Women: An Analysis of NATSAL-2000
  • A. Bogaert
  • Psychology
    Archives of sexual behavior
  • 2010
The results indicated that gay/bisexual men were significantly shorter and lighter than heterosexual men, and the present results do not support a number of studies suggesting that lesbian/b bisexual women are taller and heavier than heterosexual women.
Are 2D:4D finger-length ratios related to sexual orientation? Yes for men, no for women.
  • R. Lippa
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 2003
Findings add to evidence that prenatal hormonal factors may be linked to men's sexual orientation as well as ethnic groups, after ethnicity was taken into account.
Masculinity-femininity predicts sexual orientation in men but not in women.
The hypothesis that masculinity-femininity in adolescence is correlated with sexual orientation 5 years later and 6 years later is tested and it is predicted that for adolescent females in 1995 and 1996, more masculine females have a higher probability of self-identifying as homosexuals in 2001-02.
The Effects of Sex, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation on Self-Measured Digit Ratio (2D:4D)
We used self-reported direct finger measurements from 255,116 participants in a BBC Internet survey to investigate the measurement of 2D:4D ratios and their association with sex, ethnicity, and
biological and psychosocial determinants of male and female human sexual orientation
  • W. James
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of Biosocial Science
  • 2004
The aim is to offer some notes towards a coherent, comprehensive theory of sexual orientation, which shares a number of endocrinological, psychological, morphological and behavioural features vis-à-vis their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual peers.
The Coming-Out Process of Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women: Are There Butch/Femme Differences in Sexual Identity Development?
Sexual identity formation does not differ between butch or femme women, but differences are linked to sexual identity as lesbian or bisexual, and neither sexual identity nor butch/femme alone may explain sexual identity integration.


The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length and male homosexuality.
  • Robinson, Manning
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Evolution and human behavior : official journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
  • 2000
Finger-length ratios and sexual orientation
The androgen-sensitive pattern of finger lengths is examined, and there is evidence that homosexual women are exposed to more prenatal androgen than heterosexual women are, and men with more than one older brother, who are more likely than first-born males to be homosexual in adulthood, are exposure to more pregnancies than eldest sons.
Sexual preference or personal style? Why lesbians are disliked.
The present study replicated the design of Laner and Laner's (1979) study but compared likeableness ratings and quality attributes of lesbian and nonlesbian women, divided into three subtypes: hypo feminine (masculine), feminine (average), and hyper feminine (effeminate).
Heritable factors influence sexual orientation in women.
Heritabilities were significant using a wide range of assumptions about both the base rate of homosexuality in the population and ascertainment bias and self-reported history of childhood gender nonconformity.
Lesbian erotic role identification: behavioral, morphological, and hormonal correlates.
Findings support the validity of butch-femme classification and suggest that butch lesbians are more male-typical compared to femme lesbians, which may reflect a within-group difference caused by differential exposure to prenatal androgens.
Finger-length as an index of assertiveness in women
Development of sexual orientation among adolescent and young adult women.
The findings suggest that recollected consistency among prior and current behavior, ideation, and attractions are not systematically associated with sexual orientation among contemporary young women.
Masculinized Finger Length Patterns in Human Males and Females with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
Results are consistent with the idea that prenatal androgen exposure reduces the 2D:4D and plays a role in the establishment of the sex difference in human finger length patterns, and finger lengths may offer a retrospective marker of perinatal androgens exposure in humans.
Comparison of Auditory Evoked Potentials in Heterosexual, Homosexual, and Bisexual Males and Females
The auditory evoked potentials elicited by click stimuli were measured in heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual males and females having normal hearing sensitivity and one parsimonious interpretation of these findings is that homosexual Males and females both were exposed to higher than normal levels of androgens at some point(s) in development.
The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestrogen.
It is shown that 2D:4D in right and left hands has a sexually dimorphic pattern and is probably established in utero, which raises the possibility that patterns of digit formation may relate to spermatogenesis and hormonal concentrations.