Differences between heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women in recalled childhood experiences

  title={Differences between heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women in recalled childhood experiences},
  author={Gabriel Phillips and R. Over},
  journal={Archives of Sexual Behavior},
Heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women recalled the extent to which they had engaged in gender conforming (female-stereotypic) behaviors and gender nonconforming (male-stereotypic) behaviors in childhood. Heterosexual women were more likely to recall having had female-stereotypic experiences as children, whereas lesbian women often recalled a childhood characterized by male-stereotypic experiences. Multiple discriminant function allowed the heterosexual women in the sample to be… 
The Relation Between Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Adult Masculinity–Femininity and Anxiety in Heterosexual and Homosexual Men and Women
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    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 2003
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It is concluded that norms for heterosexual behavior impact the development of lesbian sexuality and identity, impeding, but not obliterating, their development.
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Butch/Femme Differences in Substance Use and Abuse Among Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women: Examination and Potential Explanations
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Development of sexual orientation among adolescent and young adult women.
Although some research suggests that sexual orientation is a stable, early appearing trait, interviews with 89 young sexual-minority women revealed that a majority of women failed to report at least
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Adult sexual orientation in relation to memories of childhood gender conforming and gender nonconforming behaviors
Childhood scripts as recalled by homosexual men were considerably more diverse than those of heterosexual men, which has implications not only for commentaries on the basis for homosexuality but for issues to be addressed in future research.
Childhood cross-gender behavior of homosexual females in Brazil, Peru, the Philippines, and the United States
Rejection of certain gender-typical activities and interests, as well as involvement in cross-gendered activities and interest, seem to be consistent precursors of adult sexual orientation regardless of the cultural context in which these behaviors emerge.
Lesbian women's perceptions of their parent-child relationships.
There are no apparent family background variables that predict the development of a lesbian orientation and significant differences were found concerning sex-role adherence, with lesbian women being more masculinely sex- role typed than heterosexual women.
Childhood play activities of male and female homosexuals and heterosexuals
Scale and item mean comparisons revealed large significant differences between heterosexual males and females, male homosexuals and heterosexuals, and female homosexuals andheterosexuals.
Childhood indicators of male homosexuality
  • F. L. Whitam
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Archives of sexual behavior
  • 1977
It was found that the stronger one's homosexual orientation the greater was the number of childhood indicators and there are behavioral aspects related to one's sexual orientation which may begin to emerge early in childhood.
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Detailed interview data is reported on a clinical sample of female-to-male transsexuals (FTs) compared to a matched research sample of lesbians (Ls) to highlight the similarities and differences between the two groups in childhood and adolescent development.
Sexual orientation and sex role conformity
Results showed no significant support for prevailing stereotypes of homosexuals, and possible reasons for the discrepancy between these findings and previous reports are explored.
A cross-cultural assessment of early cross-gender behavior and familial factors in male homosexuality
It is concluded that early cross-gender behavior is an intrinsic characteristic of male homosexuals, wherever they may be found, and familial factors frequently regarded as conducive to homosexuality are probably not causative at all but rather are culturally variable reactions to emerging homosexuality.
A test of the maternal stress theory of human male homosexuality
Female homosexuality nevertheless was strongly familial, suggesting a reconsideration of genetic and familial environmental mechanisms, and neither between-family nor within-family analyses revealed a maternal stress effect for either sexual orientation or childhood gender nonconformity.