Differences Between Vascular and Plaque Core Amyloid in Alzheimer's Disease

@article{Prelli1988DifferencesBV,
  title={Differences Between Vascular and Plaque Core Amyloid in Alzheimer's Disease},
  author={Frances Prelli and Eduardo Miguel Casta{\~n}o and George G. Glenner and Blas Frangione},
  journal={Journal of Neurochemistry},
  year={1988},
  volume={51}
}
Abstract: The predominant protein of cerebrovascular and plaque core amyloid in Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome, hereditary hemorrhage with amyloidosis—Dutch type, sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and age‐related amyloidosis is a unique polypeptide, called β protein. The length of the plaque amyloid protein was reported to be 42–43 residues, but the complete length of the cerebral vascular amyloid is not known. To clarify this issue, amyloid fibrils from the leptomeninges of an… 
Studies on the first described Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta mutant, the Dutch variant.
TLDR
Study of transfected cells showed that substitutions amino- or carboxyl-terminal to Abeta lead to either greater Abeta production or to enhanced secretion of the more hydrophobic thus more fibrillogenic Abeta1-42.
Normal Processing of the Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid β Protein Precursor Generates Potentially Amyloidogenic Carboxyl‐Terminal Derivatives
TLDR
In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) there are large numbers of senile plaques throughout the neuropil of the cerebral neocortex and hippocampus, and there are surrounding astrocytes whose processes project through the abnormal neurites toward the amyloid core.
Molecular biology of Alzheimer's amyloid—Dutch variant
TLDR
FAD and HCHWA-D can be regarded as two sides of the same coin, and the site of particular mutations in the APP gene and the type of amino acid substitution in theAPP holoprotein are more important in determining clincopathological phenotype and age at which Aβ is deposited.
Distribution of beta/A4 protein and amyloid precursor protein in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type and Alzheimer's disease.
TLDR
Frozen cortical tissue of HCHWA-D and AD patients and immunohistochemical findings suggest that the presence of APP in plaques is related to neuritic changes and different processes occur in amyloid formation in plaque and vessels.
Mutation of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid gene in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage, Dutch type.
TLDR
Cloning and sequencing of the two exons that encode the amyloid protein from two patients with this amyloidsosis revealed a cytosine-to-guanine transversion, a mutation that caused a single amino acid substitution (glutamine instead of glutamic acid) at position 22 of the ameloid protein.
Brain Parenchymal and Microvascular Amyloid in Alzheimer's Disease
TLDR
Work with recently developed transgenic mice which express large amounts of beta/A4 in the central nervous system is likely to elucidate mechanisms by which the protein is selectively deposited in the brain in a parenchymal or microvascular form, and how it contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration.
RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE CEREBRAL AMYLOID PEPTIDES AND THEIR PRECURSORS
TLDR
It is concluded that if a sequential pathway exists, vascular amyloid peptide must precede core amyloids peptide, and that although cores may contain other substances such as aluminum silicate, polysaccharides, and lipids, amylid peptide is a major component.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 30 REFERENCES
Neuronal origin of a cerebral amyloid: neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease contain the same protein as the amyloid of plaque cores and blood vessels.
TLDR
The amyloid of Alzheimer's disease is similar in subunit size, composition but not sequence to the scrapie‐associated fibril and its constituent polypeptides, and the sequence and composition of NFT are not homologous to those of any of the known components of normal neurofilaments.
Brain amyloid in normal aging and cerebral amyloid angiopathy is antigenically related to Alzheimer's disease beta-protein.
TLDR
Findings demonstrate that the amyloid deposits of SCAA and aged brains are composed of a protein antigenically similar to AD, HCHWA-D, and Parkinson dementia of Guam beta-protein, suggesting that all of these clinically and etiologically different morbid conditions are pathogenetically related.
Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis in patients of Dutch origin is related to Alzheimer disease.
TLDR
Results suggest that hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidsosis of Dutch origin is pathogenetically related to Alzheimer disease and support the concept that the initial amyloid deposition in this disorder occurs in the vessel walls before damaging the brain parenchyma.
Amyloid plaque core protein in Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome.
TLDR
The shared 4-kDa subunit indicates a common origin for the amyloids of the plaque core and of the congophilic angiopathy of Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome.
Amyloid fibrils in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis of Icelandic type is a variant of gamma-trace basic protein (cystatin C).
TLDR
The data on the structure of a gamma-trace variant protein suggests that its gene expresses a polyprotein precursor in which active peptides are flanked by basic amino acid residues that permit cleavage to liberate small internal peptides.
Amyloid fibril in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis (HCHWA) is related to the gastroentero-pancreatic neuroendocrine protein, gamma trace
TLDR
The amyloid fibril subunits seem to have polymerized after cleavage of the amino terminal decapeptide from gamma trace-related proteins, and HCHWA appears to be the first genetically determined disease related to the gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine system.
...
...