Differences Between Tight and Loose Cultures: A 33-Nation Study

@article{Gelfand2011DifferencesBT,
  title={Differences Between Tight and Loose Cultures: A 33-Nation Study},
  author={M. Gelfand and Jana L. Raver and L. Nishii and L. Leslie and Janetta Lun and Beng Chong Lim and Lili Duan and Assaf Almaliach and S. Ang and Jakobina Arnadottir and Z. Aycan and K. Boehnke and P. Boski and R. Cabecinhas and D. Chan and J. Chhokar and A. D'amato and M. Ferrer and I. Fischlmayr and R. Fischer and M. F{\"u}l{\"o}p and J. Georgas and E. Kashima and Yoshishima Kashima and KiBum Kim and A. Lempereur and P. M{\'a}rquez and R. Othman and B. Overlaet and P. Panagiotopoulou and K. Peltzer and Lorena R Perez-Florizno and L. Ponomarenko and A. Realo and Vidar Schei and M. Schmitt and P. B. Smith and Nazar Soomro and E. Szab{\'o} and N. Taveesin and Midori Toyama and E. Van de Vliert and Naharika Vohra and C. Ward and S. Yamaguchi},
  journal={Science},
  year={2011},
  volume={332},
  pages={1100 - 1104}
}
  • M. Gelfand, Jana L. Raver, +42 authors S. Yamaguchi
  • Published 2011
  • Medicine
  • Science
  • The differences across cultures in the enforcement of conformity may reflect their specific histories. With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and historical threats (e.g., high population… CONTINUE READING
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