Differences Between Tight and Loose Cultures: A 33-Nation Study

@article{Gelfand2011DifferencesBT,
  title={Differences Between Tight and Loose Cultures: A 33-Nation Study},
  author={Michele J. Gelfand and Jana L. Raver and Lisa Hisae Nishii and Lisa Michelle Leslie and Janetta Lun and Beng-Chong Lim and Lili Duan and Assaf Almaliach and Soon Ang and Jakobina Arnadottir and Zeynep Aycan and Klaus Boehnke and Paweł Boski and Rosa Cabecinhas and Darius K. S. Chan and Jagdeep Singh Chhokar and Alessia D'amato and Montse Ferrer and Iris C. Fischlmayr and Ronald Fischer and M{\'a}rta F{\"u}l{\"o}p and James G. Georgas and Emiko S. Kashima and Yoshishima Kashima and Kibum Kim and Alain Lempereur and Patricia Beatriz Marquez and Rozhan Othman and Bert Overlaet and Penny Panagiotopoulou and Karl Peltzer and Lorena R Perez-Florizno and Larisa Nikolaevna Ponomarenko and Anu Realo and Vidar Schei and Manfred J. Schmitt and Peter B. Smith and Nazar Soomro and Erna Szabo and Nalinee Joy Taveesin and Midori Toyama and Evert Van de Vliert and Naharika Vohra and Colleen Ward and Susumu Yamaguchi},
  journal={Science},
  year={2011},
  volume={332},
  pages={1100 - 1104}
}
The differences across cultures in the enforcement of conformity may reflect their specific histories. With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and historical threats (e.g., high population… 
A global analysis of cultural tightness in non-industrial societies
TLDR
This analysis comprehensively test Tightness–looseness theory in a sample of non-industrial societies and finds that tightness covaries across domains of social norms, such as socialization, law and gender.
Across-Time Change and Variation in Cultural Tightness-Looseness
TLDR
The results suggest that tightness-looseness, similarly to cultural value orientations, is a relatively stable and robust characteristic of culture–that is, change indeed takes place, but slowly.
Homogenous (Tight) Culture
One of the cultural dimensions that Hofstede (1980) identified was uncertainty avoidance, which stimulated research on the differences between tight and loose cultures. Homogenous or “tight” cultures
Culture’s Constraints
Recent research has identified a critical contrast between societies that are tight (i.e., societies that have strong norms and a low tolerance for deviant behavior) and those that are loose (i.e.,
The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.
TLDR
The findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture.
The loosening of American culture over 200 years is associated with a creativity–order trade-off
TLDR
Jackson and colleagues apply methods from computational linguistics to show that American norms grew looser from 1800 to 2000, implying that the historical loosening of American culture was associated with a trade-off between higher creativity but lower order.
Tightness–looseness across the 50 united states
Significance The 50 states of the United States of America show great diversity in ecological and historical conditions, personality characteristics, and outcomes. Still, little insight exists that
When Guiding Principles Don't Guide: The Moderating Effects of Cultural Tightness on Value-Behavior Links.
TLDR
Despite the common believe that people behave in line with their guiding principles, the findings suggest this might not be the case in cultural contexts that put a strong emphasis on norms.
The Index of Cultural Tightness and Looseness Among 68 Countries
If a culture is characterized by pervasive norms and sanctioning of deviance from norms, it is a tight culture. In a tight culture, people’s values, norms, and behavior are similar to each other.
Values, schemas, and norms in the culture–behavior nexus: A situated dynamics framework
International business (IB) research has predominantly relied on value constructs to account for the influence of societal culture, notably Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. While parsimonious, the
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 152 REFERENCES
Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values.
Modernization theorists from Karl Marx to Daniel Bell have argued that economic development brings pervasive cultural changes. But others, from Max Weber to Samuel Huntington, have claimed that
Cultural variation: considerations and implications.
  • D. Cohen
  • Medicine, Sociology
    Psychological bulletin
  • 2001
TLDR
The way that multiple equilibriums can emerge and the forces that push a culture toward one equilibrium point or another are illustrated.
National Culture and the Values of Organizational Employees
The values of 8,841 managers and organization employees from 43 countries were surveyed. The range of nations included paralleled many of those surveyed by Hofstede (1980) but added also substantial
Comparing cultures : dimensions of culture in a comparative perspective
Contributors Acknowledgements Prologue Culture's consequences revisited, Pieter J.D. Drenth 1. Cultures and dimensions. Classic perspectives and new opportunities in 'dimensionalist' cross-cultural
Broad and narrow socialization: The family in the context of a cultural theory.
The theory of broad and narrow socialization is described, with a particular emphasis on placing family socialization in its cultural context. In cultures characterized by broad socialization,
Social Axioms: A Model for Social Beliefs in Multicultural Perspective.
Publisher Summary This chapter describes a global research program designed to evaluate the universality and meaning of a five-factor structure of general beliefs or social axioms. Student data from
Effects of Cultural Tightness and Collectivism on Self-Concept and Causal Attributions
Previous research investigating the influence of cultural variables on the psychological constructs of self-concept and causal attributions has employed responses of individuals within cultures. In
CROSS‐CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN RELATIONSHIP RULES
A British study of the informal rules of 22 social relationships was replicated among Japanese, Hong Kong and Italian samples. Subjects were asked to rate the importance of 33 common and varying
Conceptualizing and measuring cultures and their consequences: a comparative review of GLOBE's and Hofstede's approaches
This paper explains why GLOBE used a set of cultural values and practices to measure national cultures. We show why there is no theoretical or empirical basis for Hofstede's criticism that GLOBE
Cultural Values, Sources of Guidance, and their Relevance to Managerial Behavior
Data are presented showing how middle managers in 47 countries report handling eight specific work events. The data are used to test the ability of cultural value dimensions derived from the work of
...
1
2
3
4
5
...