Differences Between Tight and Loose Cultures: A 33-Nation Study

  title={Differences Between Tight and Loose Cultures: A 33-Nation Study},
  author={Michele J. Gelfand and Jana L. Raver and Lisa Hisae Nishii and Lisa Michelle Leslie and Janetta Lun and Beng-Chong Lim and Lili Duan and Assaf Almaliach and Soon Ang and Jakobina Arnadottir and Zeynep Aycan and Klaus Boehnke and Paweł Boski and Rosa Cabecinhas and Darius K. S. Chan and Jagdeep Singh Chhokar and Alessia D'amato and Montse Ferrer and Iris C. Fischlmayr and Ronald Fischer and M{\'a}rta F{\"u}l{\"o}p and James G. Georgas and Emiko S. Kashima and Yoshishima Kashima and Kibum Kim and Alain Lempereur and Patricia Beatriz Marquez and Rozhan Othman and Bert Overlaet and Penny Panagiotopoulou and Karl Peltzer and Lorena R Perez-Florizno and Larisa Nikolaevna Ponomarenko and Anu Realo and Vidar Schei and Manfred J. Schmitt and Peter B. Smith and Nazar Soomro and Erna Szabo and Nalinee Joy Taveesin and Midori Toyama and Evert Van de Vliert and Naharika Vohra and Colleen Ward and Susumu Yamaguchi},
  pages={1100 - 1104}
The differences across cultures in the enforcement of conformity may reflect their specific histories. With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and historical threats (e.g., high population… 
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