Dietary vs. pharmacological doses of zinc: A clinical review.

@article{Santos2019DietaryVP,
  title={Dietary vs. pharmacological doses of zinc: A clinical review.},
  author={Heitor O. Santos and Filipe J. Teixeira and Brad Jon Schoenfeld},
  journal={Clinical nutrition},
  year={2019}
}

Mechanistic Impact of Zinc Deficiency in Human Development

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The role of zinc in immunity and antiviral activity is reexamine and a comparative account of different forms of zinc supplements are reviewed, finding organic forms such as picolinate, citrate, acetate, gluconate, and the monomethionine complexes are better absorbed and have biological effects at lower doses than inorganic salts.

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The evidence base of the vitamin D prostatotropic effects has been accumulated, which allows us to consider its deficiency replacement as an effective nutritional supplement in prostate diseases.

Effects of nutrients on immunomodulation in patients with severe COVID-19: Current knowledge

The findings reveal an optimal response related mainly to omega-3, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic Acid, calcium, and iron that might represent benefits in the treatment of critically ill patients, however, nutrient supplementation should be done with caution due to the limited availability of randomized controlled studies.

Therapeutic supplementation with zinc in the management of COVID-19–related diarrhea and ageusia/dysgeusia: mechanisms and clues for a personalized dosage regimen

Therapeutic doses of zinc used for adults (∼50-150 mg/day of elemental zinc) could be included in the treatment strategies for COVID-19, but this proposal should be examined through randomized studies.

Dietary Factors and Prostate Cancer Development, Progression, and Reduction

This review presents the current knowledge regarding the role of nutrients and foodstuff consumption in the etiology and development of prostate malignancies, including the potential mechanisms of action.

The Potential Role of Arginine/Glutamine/Zinc/Copper as Supplemental Immuno-Enhancing Nutrients in Suspected/Infected Sars-Cov-2 Patients

The possible advantages of supplementing patients with immune-enhancing micronutrients like arginine, glutamine, zinc, copper, and vitamin C could foster an enhanced immune response by modulating both innate and adaptive mechanisms.

References

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Use of medicinal doses of zinc as a safe and efficient coadjutant in the treatment of male hypogonadism

The current body of evidence does not suggest broad recommendations regarding the use of zinc for all types of hypogonadism, and a common and safe recommendation is 220 mg of zinc sulfate twice a day, over one to four months.

Zinc toxicity.

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Individuals using zinc supplements should be aware of the possible complications attendant to their use, and even lower levels of zinc supplementation have been suggested to interfere with the utilization of copper and iron and to adversely affect HDL cholesterol concentrations.

The Effect of Zinc Supplementation in Humans on Plasma Lipids, Antioxidant Status and Thrombogenesis

Limited data suggest that sustained hyperzincaemia predisposes individuals to thrombogenesis, whereas acute zinc depletion impairs platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time, and there is insufficient evidence to determine the role of zinc supplementation in influencing other risk factors for CHD such as antioxidant status and thromBogenesis.

Effects of Zinc supplementation on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Zinc supplementation significantly reduced total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and may have the potential to reduce the incidence of atherosclerosis related morbidity and mortality.

Zinc supplementation decreases incidence of infections in the elderly: effect of zinc on generation of cytokines and oxidative stress.

After zinc supplementation, the incidence of infections was significantlyLower, plasma zinc was significantly higher, and generation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and oxidative stress markers was significantly lower in the zinc-supplemented than in the placebo group.

Studies on the bioavailability of zinc in humans: intestinal interaction of tin and zinc.

The tin/zinc interaction is explored using the change-in-plasma-zinc-concentration method with a standard dosage of 12.5 mg of zinc as zinc sulfate in 100 ml of Coca-Cola and a reduction of zinc absorption not dissimilar from that seen previously with zinc and iron alone.

Effects of Zinc Supplementation on Plasma Copper/Zinc Ratios, Oxidative Stress, and Immunological Status in Hemodialysis Patients

Zn supplementation ameliorates abnormally high plasma Cu/Zn ratios and may reduce oxidative stress, improve inflammatory status, and maintain immune function in patients undergoing long-term HD.

Dietary factors influencing zinc absorption.

Knowledge about dietary factors that inhibit zinc absorption and about ways to overcome or remove these factors is essential when designing strategies to improve the zinc nutrition of vulnerable groups.

Zinc in Cancer Prevention

In patients with head and neck cancer, it is shown that nearly 65% of these patients were zinc deficient based on their cellular zinc concentrations and zinc status was a better indicator of tumor burden and stage of disease in comparison to the overall nutritional status.

Competitive interaction of iron and zinc in the diet: consequences for human nutrition.

Consideration of solutions to these problems, including conscious adjustment of the Fe/Zn ratios in human diets, foods and therapeutic nutrient supplements in order to reduce the zinc-inhibiting effects of iron, should become a priority in policy and marketing discussions within government regulatory agencies, industry and the scientific community of human and clinical nutritionists.
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