Dietary influences on urinary oxalate and risk of kidney stones.

@article{Massey2003DietaryIO,
  title={Dietary influences on urinary oxalate and risk of kidney stones.},
  author={Linda K. Massey},
  journal={Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library},
  year={2003},
  volume={8},
  pages={
          s584-94
        }
}
  • L. Massey
  • Published 1 May 2003
  • Medicine
  • Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library
Calcium oxalate is the most common constituent of kidney stones. Increases in urinary oxalate increase risk of calcium oxalate supersaturation more than increases in urinary calcium, as the physiological level of oxalate is about one-fifth to one-tenth that of urinary calcium. Urinary oxalate derives from two sources: endogenous synthesis and diet. Endogenous synthesis is proportional to lean body mass, and cannot be altered by any current treatment. Dietary oxalate is found in all plant foods… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Role of Dietary Intake and Intestinal Absorption of Oxalate in Calcium Stone Formation

The role of dietary and intestinal oxalate in determining the level of oxalates excreted in urine is reviewed, and a model of the intestine is constructed which brings together the available evidence on the prevailing concentrations of these various factors at different sites in the intestine.

Oxalate and Urolithiasis

Enteric hyperoxaluria increases the bioavailability of oxalate in patients with extensive small-bowel resection or enteric bypass surgery for obesity, and it is unknown which would be the best to recolonize kidney stone patients.

Diet and Kidney Stones: Myths and Realities

Conclusions are as follows: All individuals should avoid very high or very low total intakes of calcium or vitamin C, and those prone to oxalate stones should avoid excessive dietary supplementation.

Kidney Stone: Diet, Myth, and Realty

This chapter will highlight common mistakes of dietary prevention of kidney stones and current recommendations from American Urology Association guidelines.

Reference values of plasma oxalate in children and adolescents

In the healthy population aged 1–18 years, plasma oxalate concentration is independent of age, gender, and body size, which suggests possible immature mechanisms of renal excretion.

Prevention of Stone Disease

The ‘metabolic syndrome’ includes all the diseases, e.g. hypertension, lipid imbalances, type 2 diabetes mellitus, gout and cardiovascular disease, which are concomitant in the majority of stone formers.

Oxalates are Found in Many Different European and Asian Foods - Effects of Cooking and Processing

Plant foods contain a surprising number of different toxins. A few well-known plants, including some grown in Thailand are known to contain high levels of oxalates however, some plants have not yet

Epidemiology of Stone Disease in Northern India

Stone patients from North India were shown to have a significantly higher intake of dairy products such as curd and cheese as compared to non-stone cases and first-degree relatives of stone formers are at higher risk of developing urolithiasis and have significantly higher urinary calcium excretion asCompared to the spouses of the stone former.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 92 REFERENCES

Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion.

It is suggested that dietary oxalate makes a much greater contribution to urinaryOxalate excretion than previously recognized, that dietary calcium influences the bioavailability of ingested oxalATE, and that the absorption of dietary oxAlate may be an important factor in calcium oxalates stone formation.

Effect of animal and vegetable protein intake on oxalate excretion in idiopathic calcium stone disease.

It was concluded that dietary animal protein has a minimal effect on oxalate excretion and mild hyperoxaluria of idiopathic calcium stone disease is likely to be intestinal in origin.

Dietary oxalate and its intestinal absorption.

The results suggest that the intestinal absorption of dietary oxalates makes a substantial contribution to urinary oxalate excretion and that this absorption can be modified by decreasing oxalATE intake or increasing the intakes of calcium, magnesium, and fiber.

Effects of high intake of dietary animal protein on mineral metabolism and urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate in renal stone formers.

The metabolic effects of a high protein diet were studied in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones and findings point to an enhanced resorption of bone, possibly secondary to increased renal loss of calcium.

Urine composition in normal subjects after oral ingestion of oxalate-rich foods.

Urinary composition was studied in nine healthy adults on unrestricted diet and low-oxalate diet with and without individual oxalate-rich foods and in some people it, like strawberries, did not represent a real risk factor.

Urinary oxalate excretion increases with body size and decreases with increasing dietary calcium intake among healthy adults.

It is concluded that body size is the major determinant of urinary oxalate excretion among healthy adults, presumably reflecting variations in endogenous oxalates synthesis with lean body mass.

Effects of calcium and magnesium on urinary oxalate excretion after oxalate loads.

High-calcium intake abolishes hyperoxaluria and reduces urinary crystallization during a 20-fold normal oxalate load in humans.

Increasing calcium intake while eating Ox-rich food prevents dietary hyperoxaluria and reduces CaOx crystallization in healthy subjects, and illustrates that dietary counseling to idiopathic calcium-stone formers should ensure sufficient calcium intake, especially during oxalate-rich meals.
...