Dietary fats and insulin action

@article{Storlien2004DietaryFA,
  title={Dietary fats and insulin action},
  author={Len H. Storlien and Louise A. Baur and Adamandia D. Kriketos and David A. Pan and Gregory J. Cooney and Arthur B. Jenkins and G. D. Calvert and Lesley V. Campbell},
  journal={Diabetologia},
  year={2004},
  volume={39},
  pages={621-631}
}
The history of research into the relationship between dietary fat intake and impaired insulin action has its origin in the work of Himsworth approximately 60 years ago [1, 2]. In a series of pioneering studies using crude indices of insulin action and limited subject numbers (only one in an often quoted paper!), Himsworth linked high levels of fat intake with insulin resistance, and conversely, improved insulin action with predominantly carbohydrate diet. However, the link was tenuous and… 

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It is concluded that habitually low dietary fiber intake, along with elevated dietary fat, correlates with diminished SI in otherwise healthy lean and obese subjects.

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It is concluded that the particular fatty acids and the lipid environment in which they are presented in high-fat diets determine insulin sensitivity in rats and impaired insulin action in skeletal muscle relates to triglyceride accumulation, suggesting intracellular glucose–fatty acid cycle involvement.

Deterioration in carbohydrate metabolism and lipoprotein changes induced by modern, high fat diet in Pima Indians and Caucasians.

Since glucose-mediated glucose disposal, beta-cell function, and glucose tolerance deteriorated on the modern diet, it is likely that diet composition affects the prevalence of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in both Pimas and caucasians.

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The intake of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol may be detrimental to glucose tolerance, in contrast to the intake of pectin and mono- and disaccharides, as well as the consumption of sugar products.

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Even with extreme changes in the fat-carbohydrate ratio (fat energy varied from 0% to 70% of total intake), there was no detectable evidence of significant variation in energy need as a function of percentage fat intake.

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It is suggested that practically achievable high carbohydrate diets do not enhance insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic subjects and have net effects on lipoprotein metabolism that may be unfavorable.
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