Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate cancer protection: a review

  title={Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate cancer protection: a review},
  author={Ver{\'o}nica M Heinze and Adriana Beatriz Actis},
  journal={International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition},
  pages={66 - 78}
The role of dietary fatty acids on cancer is still controversial. To examine the current literature on the protective role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and marine long-chain fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and the risk of breast and prostate cancer, data from 41 case-control and cohort studies and relevant in vitro and animal experiments were included in this 2000–2010 revision. Epidemiological studies on CLA intake or its tissue concentration… 
Biological effects of conjugated linoleic acids supplementation.
A balanced diet rich in CLA from natural sources is recommended and some studies, conducted both in animals and in humans, reveal that CLA isomers may induce insulin resistance.
Lactomega Softgels: For Overall Human Health Helps to Prevent Risk of Chronic Diseases
Fish oil is oil derived from the tissues of oily fish. Fish oils contain the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), precursors of certain eicosanoids that
Beef consumption and fatty acids serum concentration: relationship with salivary gland tumors in Córdoba, Argentina.
Serum oleic and linolenic FAs showed a significant negative association with SGT, but a strong-positive association between total energy intake and total fat intake and SGT were observed.
Current issues surrounding the definition of trans-fatty acids: implications for health, industry and food labels.
It is found that CLA derived from ruminant foods differ from commercial CLA supplements in their isomer composition/distribution, consumption level and bioactivity, and it is advocated that regional nutrition guidelines/policies should focus on eliminating industrial forms of trans-fat from processed foods as opposed to all TFA per se.
Identification of a molecular signature underlying inhibition of mammary carcinoma growth by dietary N-3 fatty acids.
The findings indicate that the molecular effects of high dietary n-3 to n-6 ratios are heterogeneous in nature but point to consistent changes in lipid metabolism pathways, which may serve as potential therapeutic targets for cancer prevention and control.
Meat, eggs, full-fat dairy, and nutritional boogeymen: Does the way in which animals are raised affect health differently in humans?
Overall, lipid levels remained relatively neutral, but significant changes in inflammatory and other serum markers and phospholipids were present, highlighting differences in human health markers after consumption of the same foods from animals raised differently.
Food properties and dietary habits in colorectal cancer prevention and development
Diet rich in vitamin B6, C, D, E, folic acid, selenium, and magnesium has been considered to reduce the CRC risk and might even reduce the occurrence of CRC.
Effect of vitamin E on milk composition of grazing dairy cows supplemented with microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid
Under the conditions that this experiment was carried out, high concentrations of vitamin E in the diet of grazing dairy cows do not inhibit milk fat depression associated with conjugated linoleic acid and it has no effect on the fatty acid profile of the milk.


Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms.
Several molecular mechanisms whereby n-3 fatty acids may modify the carcinogenic process have been proposed, and influences on transcription factor activity, gene expression, and signal transduction pathways; alteration of estrogen metabolism; increased or decreased production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species; and mechanisms involving insulin sensitivity and membrane fluidity are proposed.
Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Disease Prevention: A Review of Current Knowledge
  • H. Macdonald
  • Biology
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition
  • 2000
In vitro results suggest that CLA is cytotoxic to MCF-7 cells and it inhibits the proliferation of human malignant melanoma and colorectal cancer cells, and it is now thought that CLA itself may not have anti-oxidant capabilities but may produce substances which protect cells from the detrimental effects of peroxides.
Conjugated linoleic acid-enriched butter fat alters mammary gland morphogenesis and reduces cancer risk in rats.
It is hypothesized that the availability of vaccenic acid (t11-18:1) in butter fat may serve as the precursor for the endogenous synthesis of CLA via the Delta9-desaturase reaction and further studies will be conducted to investigate other attributes of this novel dairy product.
Breast cancer risk and erythrocyte compositions of n‐3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in Japanese
It is shown that erythrocyte compositions of specific fatty acids derived from fish intake, as biomarkers, are associated with lower risk of breast cancer, but further studies are needed to investigate mechanisms linked to the etiology.
Intake of conjugated linoleic acid, fat, and other fatty acids in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer: the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer.
The suggested anticarcinogenic property of CLA in animal and tissue culture models could not be confirmed in this epidemiologic study in humans.
Decrease in linoleic acid metabolites as a potential mechanism in cancer risk reduction by conjugated linoleic acid.
TheCLA dose-response effect on arachidonic acid suppression corresponded closely with the CLA dose- response effect on cancer protection in the mammary gland, and optimal CLA nutrition during pubescence could conceivably control the population of cancer-sensitive target sites in the breast gland.
Long-Chain n-3-to-n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratios in Breast Adipose Tissue From Women With and Without Breast Cancer
It is concluded that total n-6 PUFAs may be contributing to the high risk of breast cancer in the United States and that LC n-3PUFAs, derived from fish oils, may have a protective effect.
Fish Consumption and Breast Cancer Risk
Examination of the association between consumption of fatty and lean fish and breast cancer risk in Sweden found high consumption of fish was weakly associated with reduced Breast cancer risk, and the association was not statistically significant.
Conjugated linoleic acid intake and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Swedish women.
The results provide no evidence of a protective effect of CLA against breast cancer development in women.
Conjugated linoleic acid in meat and meat products: A review.