Dietary α‐Linolenic Acid, Marine ω‐3 Fatty Acids, and Mortality in a Population With High Fish Consumption: Findings From the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) Study

@article{SalaVila2016DietaryA,
  title={Dietary $\alpha$‐Linolenic Acid, Marine $\omega$‐3 Fatty Acids, and Mortality in a Population With High Fish Consumption: Findings From the PREvenci{\'o}n con DIeta MEDiterr{\'a}nea (PREDIMED) Study},
  author={Aleix Sala-Vila and Marta Guasch-Ferr{\'e} and Frank B. Hu and Ana S{\'a}nchez-Ta{\'i}nta and M{\'o}nica Bull{\'o} and Merc{\`e} Serra‐Mir and Carmen L{\'o}pez-Sabater and Jos{\'e} Vicente Sorl{\'i} and Fernando Ar{\'o}s and Miquel Fiol and Miguel Angel Mu{\~n}oz and Lu{\'i}s Serra-Majem and J. Alfredo Mart{\'i}nez and Dolores Corella and Montserrat Fit{\'o} and Jordi Salas-Salvad{\'o} and Miguel Angel Mart{\'i}nez-Gonz{\'a}lez and Ram{\'o}n Estruch and Emilio Ros and Ana M. P{\'e}rez-Heras and C. Vi{\~n}as and Rosa Casas and L. de Santamar{\'i}a and S. Romero and Emilio Sacanella and Gema Chiva and Patricio Valderas and Sara Arranz and Juan Manuel Guardia Baena and M. Garc{\'i}a and Marta Oller and J. Amat and I. Duaso and Y. Garc{\'i}a and C. C. Iglesias and C. Sim{\'o}n and Ll. Quinzavos and Ll. Parra and Mercedes Liroz and Jaume Benavent and J. Clos and I. Pla and M. Amor{\'o}s and M. Teresa Brufau Bonet and M.T. Martin and M.S. S{\'a}nchez and Jordi Altirriba and Esther Navarro Manzano and Anna Garc{\'i}a Alt{\'e}s and Montserrat Cof{\'a}n and Cinta Valls-Pedret and M{\'o}nica Dom{\'e}nech and Rosa Gilabert and N{\'u}ria Bargall{\'o} and Robys Gonz{\'a}lez and Claudina Molina and Fabiola M{\'a}rquez and Nancy Babio and Mois{\'e}s Sorl{\'i} and J. Garc{\'i}a Rosell{\'o} and A. Diaz‐L{\'o}pez A and Francisco Mart{\'i}n and R. Tort and A. Isach and B. Costa and Juan J Cabr{\'e} and Joan D. Fern{\'a}ndez-Ballart and N{\'u}ria Ibarrola-Jurado and Carles Alegret and P. Gomez Martinez and S. Mill{\'a}n and Josep Llu{\'i}s Pi{\~n}ol and Teresa Basora and Jos{\'e} Mar{\'i}a Hern{\'a}ndez and Estefan{\'i}a Toledo and Pilar Buil-Cosiales and Miguel Ru{\'i}z-Canela and B. Sanjuli{\'a}n and Javier D{\'i}ez-Espino and V. Extremera‐Urabayen and Ana Garc{\'i}a-Arellano and Itziar Zazpe and Francisco Javier Basterra-Gortari and E. Go{\~n}i and Cristina Razqu{\'i}n and Manuel Serrano-Mart{\'i}nez and Maira Bes-Rastrollo and Alfredo Gea and Elena H. Martinez-Lapiscina and Jorge M Nu{\~n}ez-C{\'o}rdoba and C. Arroyo‐Azpa and Lidia Garc{\'i}a-P{\'e}rez and J. Villanueva-Telleria and F. Cort{\'e}s‐Ugalde and T. Sagredo‐Arce and Mª D. Garc{\'i}a de la Noceda‐Montoy and Mª D. Vigata‐L{\'o}pez and Mª T. Arceiz‐Campo and A. Urtasun‐Samper and Mª V. Gueto‐Rubio and B. Churio‐Beraza and Rosa Mar{\'i}a Lamuela-Ravent{\'o}s and A. I Castellote-Bargall{\'o} and Alexander Medina-Rem{\'o}n and Anna Tresserra-Rimbau and Paula Carrasco and C. Ortega‐ Azor{\'i}n and Eva M Asensio and R. Osma and Roc{\'i}o Barrag{\'a}n and F. Franc{\'e}s and Marisa Guill{\'e}n and J.I. Gonz{\'a}lez and Carmen Saiz and Olga Portol{\'e}s and Fernando Gim{\'e}nez and {\'O}scar Coltell and Patricia Guillem-S{\'a}iz and Laura Quiles and Vicente Calder{\'o}n Pascual and Cl{\`a}udia Riera and M. A. Pages and Diego Godoy and Arturo Carratal{\'a}-Calvo and M.J. Mart{\'i}n‐Rillo and E. Llopis‐Osorio and J. Ruiz‐ Baixauli and A. Bertol{\'i}n‐Mu{\~n}oz and Itziar Salaverria and T. del Hierro and Jaime Algorta and Silvia Francisco and {\'A}lvaro Alonso and Jes{\'u}s M San Vicente and Eileen Sanz and Izaskun Felipe and {\'A}ngel Mar{\'i}a Alonso G{\'o}mez and {\'A}ngel Loma-Osorio and M. Garc{\'i}a‐Valdueza and Manuel Mo{\~n}ino and Armando Quintana Proenza and Rafael M Prieto and Guiem Frontera and Miguel Francisco Segura Ginard and Francisca Fiol and A. Jover and J. Garc{\'i}a and Maria-Isabel Covas and Susana Tello and Joan Vila and Helmut Schr{\"o}der and Rafael de la Torre and Daniel Mu{\~n}oz-Aguayo and Roberto Elosua and Jaume Marrugat and M. Ferrer and Jacqueline {\'A}lvarez-P{\'e}rez and E. D{\'i}azBen{\'i}tez and I. Bautista-Casta{\~n}o and I. Maldonado‐D{\'i}az and Almudena S{\'a}nchez-Villegas and Isabel Castro and Patricia Cid Henr{\'i}quez and Cristina Ruano and A. P. Ortiz and F Sarmiendo de la Fe and C. Sim{\'o}n-Garc{\'i}a and I. Falc{\'o}n-Sanabria and B. Mac{\'i}as-Guti{\'e}rrez and A. J. Santana-Santana and Enrique G{\'o}mez-Gracia and Joaquín Fernández-Crehuet and R. Ben{\'i}tez Pont and M. Bianchi Alba and Julia W{\"a}rnberg and Ricardo G{\'o}mez-Huelgas and Julio Mart{\'i}nez-Gonz{\'a}lez and V. Velasco Garc{\'i}a and J de Diego Salas and A. Baca Osorio and J. Gil Zarzosa and J J S{\'a}nchez Luque and Ernesto Vargas Lopez and Valentina Ru{\'i}z-Guti{\'e}rrez and E. Jurado Ruiz and Emilio Montero Romero and M Garc{\'i}a Garc{\'i}a and Jos{\'e} Lapetra and Manuel Leal and E. Mart{\'i}nez and Jos{\'e} Manuel Santos and Manuel Ortega-Calvo and Pilar Rom{\'a}n and F. Jos{\'e} Garc{\'i}a and Pablo Iglesias and Y. Corchado and Eduardo Mayoral and Carmen Lama and Xavier Pint{\'o} and Esperanza de la Cruz and Ana Galera and Y. Soler and Ferran Trias and I. D. Fl{\'o}rez Sarasa and Estimados Padres and Rosaura Figueras and Xavier Solanich and Ram{\'o}n Pujol and Emili Corbella and Carmen Cabezas and Ernest Vinyoles and Marta Alujas Rovira and L. García and Gemma Flores and J. M. Verd{\'u} and P. Baby and A. Ramos and Lucas Mengual and Pilar Roura and Maria Yuste and Ana Guarner and A. Rovira and Mar{\'i}a Antonia Iglesias Santamar{\'i}a and Maribel Mata and Carlos de Juan and A. Brau and Amelia Mart{\'i} and Mar{\'i}a Teresa Mitjavila and Mar{\'i}a Puy Portillo and Guillermo T S{\'a}ez and Josep Antoni Tur},
  journal={Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease},
  year={2016},
  volume={5}
}
Background Epidemiological evidence suggests a cardioprotective role of α‐linolenic acid (ALA), a plant‐derived ω‐3 fatty acid. It is unclear whether ALA is beneficial in a background of high marine ω‐3 fatty acids (long‐chain n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) intake. In persons at high cardiovascular risk from Spain, a country in which fish consumption is customarily high, we investigated whether meeting the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids recommendation for… 

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