Did Warfare Among Ancestral Hunter-Gatherers Affect the Evolution of Human Social Behaviors?

@article{Bowles2009DidWA,
  title={Did Warfare Among Ancestral Hunter-Gatherers Affect the Evolution of Human Social Behaviors?},
  author={Samuel Bowles},
  journal={Science},
  year={2009},
  volume={324},
  pages={1293 - 1298}
}
  • S. Bowles
  • Published 5 June 2009
  • Psychology
  • Science
War and Peace? Modern behavior, including the development of advanced tools, musical instruments, and art, seems to have arisen in humans in stages. The earliest hints are seen in Africa about 70 to 90,000 years ago, but later in Europe about 45,000 years ago. An ongoing discussion centers on the origins and significance of human prosociality. During early human development, could the benefits of altruistic behavior have outweighed its costs (see the Perspective by Mace)? Bowles (p. 1293… 
Lethal Aggression in Mobile Forager Bands and Implications for the Origins of War
TLDR
Investigating lethal aggression in a sample of 21 mobile forager band societies derived systematically from the standard cross-cultural sample suggests that most incidents of lethal aggression among MFBS may be classified as homicides, a few others as feuds, and a minority as war.
Warfare and Social Preferences in Children
Since Darwin, warfare and inter-group hostilities have been hypothesized as catalysts in explanations for the evolutionary puzzle of human pro-sociality. Lethal conflicts would foster the development
Resource scarcity drives lethal aggression among prehistoric hunter-gatherers in central California
TLDR
Results show that individuals are prone to violence in times and places of resource scarcity, providing a clear rationale to understand why violence may be greater in specific times or places through human history, which can help predict where and when it may arise in the future.
Proving communal warfare among hunter‐gatherers: The quasi‐rousseauan error
  • A. Gat
  • Political Science
    Evolutionary anthropology
  • 2015
TLDR
All human populations during the Pleistocene, until about 12,000 years ago, were hunter‐gatherers, or foragers, of the simple, mobile sort that lacked accumulated resources, so anthropology should have been uniquely positioned to answer the question of aboriginal human fighting or lack thereof.
The Evolutionary Origins of Human Political Systems by Herbert Gintis , Carel van Schaik
q 201 We provide the most up-to-date evidence available in various behavioral fields in support of the hypothesis that the emergence of bipedalism and cooperative breeding in the hominin
Some remarks about murder: a Darwinian perspective
Paleoanthropological remains and historical data show that human beings have a long history of violent aggression. However, killing in group is distinct from killing in a one-to-one interaction, as
The demography of human warfare can drive sex differences in altruism
Abstract Recent years have seen great interest in the suggestion that between-group aggression and within-group altruism have coevolved. However, these efforts have neglected the possibility that
The Evolution of Human Warfare
Here we propose a new theory for the origins and evolution of human warfare as a complex social phenomenon involving several behavioral traits, including aggression, risk taking, male bonding,
The evolutionary anthropology of war
Zoon politikon: The evolutionary origins of human socio-political systems
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 62 REFERENCES
Ancestral War and the Evolutionary Origins of “Heroism”
TLDR
Two simulations explore the possibility that heroism evolved as a specialized form of altruism in response to war and show that war selects strongly for heroism but only weakly for a domain-general altruistic propensity that promotes both heroism and other privately costly, group-benefiting behaviors.
War and the evolution of belligerence and bravery
TLDR
It is shown that the selective pressure on these two traits can be substantial even in groups of large size, and that they may be driven by two independent reproduction-enhancing resources: additional mates for males and additional territory (or material resources) for females.
Hunter‐gatherers and human evolution
TLDR
The ethnographic record of foragers provides the only direct observations of human behavior in the absence of agriculture, and as such is invaluable for testing hypotheses about human behavioral evolution.
Comparative rates of violence in chimpanzees and humans
TLDR
Preliminary data support Boehm’s hypothesis that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans have similar rates of death from intraspecific aggression, whereas chimpanzees have higher rates of non-lethal physical attack.
Alliance and conflict : the world system of the Iñupiaq Eskimos
Alliance and Conflict combines a richly descriptive study of intersocietal relations in early nineteenth-century Northwest Alaska with a bold theoretical treatise on the structure of the world system
Nineteenth-Century Arrow Wounds and Perceptions of Prehistoric Warfare
  • G. Milner
  • Political Science
    American Antiquity
  • 2005
In recent years, prehistoric warfare has increasingly attracted the attention of archaeologists in North America, much like other parts of the world. Skeletons with several forms of trauma, including
Australia's Ancient Warriors: Changing Depictions of Fighting in the Rock Art of Arnhem Land, N.T.
Depictions of battle scenes, skirmishes and hand-to-hand combat are rare in hunter-gatherer art and when they do occur most often result from contact with agriculturalist or industrialized invaders.
War in Human Civilization
  • A. Gat
  • Political Science, History
  • 2006
PART 1: WARFARE IN THE FIRST TWO MILLION YEARS: ENVIRONMENT, GENES, AND CULTURE 1. Introduction: The Human 'State of Nature' 2. Peaceful or War-like: Did Hunter-Gatherers Fight? 3. Why Fighting? The
The Coevolution of Parochial Altruism and War
TLDR
It is shown that under conditions likely to have been experienced by late Pleistocene and early Holocene humans, neither parochialism nor altruism would have been viable singly, but by promoting group conflict, they could have evolved jointly.
...
...