Did Neanderthals and other early humans sing? Seeking the biological roots of music in the territorial advertisements of primates, lions, hyenas, and wolves

@article{Hagen2009DidNA,
  title={Did Neanderthals and other early humans sing? Seeking the biological roots of music in the territorial advertisements of primates, lions, hyenas, and wolves},
  author={Edward H. Hagen and Peter Hammerstein},
  journal={Musicae Scientiae},
  year={2009},
  volume={13},
  pages={291 - 320}
}
Group defence of territories is found in many gregarious mammalian carnivores, including lions, canids, and hyenas. In these taxa, group members often mark territory boundaries and direct aggressive behaviour towards alien conspecifics found within the territory (Boydston et al., 2001). Middle Pleistocene hominids such as Neanderthals occupied an ecological niche similar to such large carnivores (Stiner, 2002), and so could be expected to share with them a suite of behavioural traits. Complex… 
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