Did Muhammad Ali Foster Industrialization in Early Nineteenth‐Century Egypt?

@article{Panza2015DidMA,
  title={Did Muhammad Ali Foster Industrialization in Early Nineteenth‐Century Egypt?},
  author={Laura Panza and Jeffrey Gale Williamson},
  journal={Wiley-Blackwell: Economic History Review},
  year={2015}
}
type="main"> Muhammad Ali, who ruled Egypt between 1805 and 1849, intervened in Egyptian markets in an attempt to foster industrialization, especially between 1812 and 1840. Like a modern marketing board, the state purchased agricultural commodities (cotton and wheat) at low prices and sold them on world markets at much higher prices, a policy equivalent to an export tax. Ali also replaced tax farming with his own land taxes. The revenues so derived were used in part to finance manufacturing… Expand
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