Did Muhammad Ali Foster Industrialization in Early Nineteenth‐Century Egypt?

  title={Did Muhammad Ali Foster Industrialization in Early Nineteenth‐Century Egypt?},
  author={Laura Panza and Jeffrey Gale Williamson},
  journal={Wiley-Blackwell: Economic History Review},
type="main"> Muhammad Ali, who ruled Egypt between 1805 and 1849, intervened in Egyptian markets in an attempt to foster industrialization, especially between 1812 and 1840. Like a modern marketing board, the state purchased agricultural commodities (cotton and wheat) at low prices and sold them on world markets at much higher prices, a policy equivalent to an export tax. Ali also replaced tax farming with his own land taxes. The revenues so derived were used in part to finance manufacturing… 
Overcoming the Egyptian cotton crisis in the interwar period: the role of irrigation, drainage, new seeds and access to credit
After experiencing a period of spectacular growth during the late nineteenth century, the Egyptian cotton sector underwent a phase of stagnation between 1900 and 1914, which was followed by a gradual
Broken promises : the politics of lax enforcement of tax laws in Egypt
This thesis seeks to explain the lax enforcement of tax laws in Egypt. While I acknowledge that existing explanations emphasising amongst other things the importance of low administrative capacity,
An Economic Rationale for the West African Scramble? The Commercial Transition and the Commodity Price Boom of 1835–1885
We use a new trade dataset showing that nineteenth century sub-Saharan Africa experienced a terms of trade boom comparable to other parts of the “global periphery.” A sharp rise in export prices in
American Exceptionalism as a Problem in Global History
  • R. Allen
  • Economics
    The Journal of Economic History
  • 2014
The causes of the United States’ exceptional economic performance are investigated by comparing American wages and prices with wages and prices in Great Britain, Egypt, and India. American
Industrial growth in interwar Egypt: first estimates, new insights
Based on the first estimates of output growth, this article shows that Egyptian industrial output grew at an accelerating rate in the interwar period and the country joined the industrial catch-up
Colonialism and Development in Africa
Rempel engages the argument that President Truman invented development in 1949. She points to nineteenth-century African modernization initiatives, and the development discourse that accompanied the
The Effects of Market Integration During the First Globalization: A Multi-Market Approach
This paper measures the effects of international market integration on world trade and welfare during the first globalization (1815-1913). The analysis is carried out with a multi-market partial


Employment in nineteenth century Indian textiles
The “de-industrialization” of India has been a topic of extensive debate in the literature of political economy. Officials of the East India Company warned against it in the early days of the 18th
Ottoman De-Industrialization, 1800-1913: Assessing the Magnitude, Impact, and Response
India and Britain were much bigger players in the eighteenth-century world market for manufactures than were Egypt, the Levant, and the core of the Ottoman Empire, but these eastern Mediterranean
De‐Industrialization and Re‐Industrialization in the Middle East: Reflections on the Cotton Industry in Egypt and in the Izmir Region
type="main"> This article presents an investigation of the process of decline and rebirth of textile manufacturing in two Middle Eastern regions, Egypt and the Izmir region, during the first wave of
Deindustrialization in 18th and 19th century India: Mughal decline, climate shocks and British industrial ascent
India was a major player in the world export market for textiles in the early 18th century, but by the middle of the 19th century it had lost all of its export market and much of its domestic market,
The Pasha's Peasants Land, Society, and Economy in Lower Egypt 1740-1858
List of tables List of abbreviations Note on the use of dates, vocabulary, transliteration, and spelling Preface Introduction Part I. Rural Egypt Before the Reforms of Muhammad Ali: 1. The agrarian
Technological and Organizational Absorption in the Development of the Modern Japanese Cotton Industry
It is well known that the cotton industry in modern Japan, which was made up of larger spinning companies, small-and medium-sized independent weavers in local producing centres (sanchi), merchants
Trade and Poverty: When the Third World Fell Behind
Today's wide economic gap between the postindustrial countries of the West and the poorer countries of the third world is not new. Fifty years ago, the world economic order--two hundred years in the
Mexican Exceptionalism: Globalization and De-Industrialization, 1750–1877
Like the rest of the poor periphery, Mexico fought with de-industrialization in the century before the 1870s. Yet, Mexican manufacturing defended itself better than did the rest of the poor
The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective
Why did the industrial revolution take place in eighteenth-century Britain and not elsewhere in Europe or Asia? In this convincing new account Robert Allen argues that the British industrial
Globalization and the Near East: A Study of Cotton Market Integration in Egypt and Western Anatolia
The Near East underwent a process of integration with the global economy during the second half of the nineteenth century. This article explores one aspect of this process, examining the linkages