Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan

@article{Oaks2004DiclofenacRA,
  title={Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan},
  author={J. Lindsay Oaks and Martin Gilbert and Munir Z. Virani and Richard T. Watson and Carol Uphoff Meteyer and Bruce A. Rideout and H L Shivaprasad and Shakeel Ahmed and Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal Chaudhry and Muhammad Arshad and Shahid Mahmood and Ahmad Ali and Aleem Ahmed Khan},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2004},
  volume={427},
  pages={630-633}
}
The Oriental white-backed vulture (OWBV; Gyps bengalensis) was once one of the most common raptors in the Indian subcontinent. A population decline of >95%, starting in the 1990s, was first noted at Keoladeo National Park, India. Since then, catastrophic declines, also involving Gyps indicus and Gyps tenuirostris, have continued to be reported across the subcontinent. Consequently these vultures are now listed as critically endangered by BirdLife International. In 2000, the Peregrine Fund… 
Diclofenac poisoning as a cause of vulture population declines across the Indian subcontinent
TLDR
It is recommended that urgent action is taken in the range states of the three currently threatened vulture species to prevent the exposure of vultures to livestock carcasses contaminated with diclofenac.
Recent changes in populations of Critically Endangered Gyps vultures in India
Summary Populations of the White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis, Indian Vulture G. indicus and Slender-billed Vulture G. tenuirostris declined rapidly during the mid-1990s all over their ranges in
The Population Decline of Gyps Vultures in India and Nepal Has Slowed since Veterinary Use of Diclofenac was Banned
TLDR
The degree to which the decline of G. bengalensis in India has slowed is consistent with the expected effects on population trend of a measured change in the level of contamination of ungulate carcasses with the drug diclofenac, which is toxic to vultures, following a ban on its veterinary use in 2006.
Vultures in Cambodia: population, threats and conservation
Summary Asian vultures have undergone dramatic declines of 90–99% in the Indian Subcontinent, as a consequence of poisoning by veterinary use of the drug diclofenac, and are at a high risk of
South Asian Vultures in Crisis: Environmental Contamination with a Pharmaceutical
TLDR
In the late 1990s an unprecedented decline in the population of two of the world’s most abundant raptors, the Oriental White-backed vulture and the Long-billed vulture, was noticed in India and similar catastrophic declines followed in neighboring Pakistan, and a ban on the manufacture of veterinary diclofenac was imposed in 2006.
Partial recovery of Critically Endangered Gyps vulture populations in Nepal
Summary Populations of Critically Endangered White-rumped Gyps bengalensis and Slender-billed G. tenuirostris Vultures in Nepal declined rapidly during the 2000s, almost certainly because of the
Gyps Vultures in the Indian Subcontinent: an overview
TLDR
Experimental demonstration that doses of diclofenac recommended for domestic livestock would induce visceral gout and rapid death of captive vultures, and histological lesions identical to those observed in birds that had died with visceral gouts in the wild, further support the conclusion that the use in veterinary medicine of dICl ofenac, and probably also of related drugs, has caused the high rate of mortalities that has produced the population collapses of these species.
Is malaria the cause for decline in the wild population of the Indian White-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis)?
TLDR
A study carried out in a densely forested and sparsely populated region in Central India found an intracellular malarial parasite was identified from the tissues of both live and dead White-backed vultures and indicated a 95―96% similarity with the mitochondrial sequence of Plas modium falciparum and other Plasmodium species.
The conservation of Accipitridae vultures of Nepal: a review
Of the nine Accipitridae vulture species found within Nepal the IUCN categorises White-rumped, Indian Vulture, Slender-billed and Red-headed Vultures as Critically Endangered and Egyptian Vulture as
The race to prevent the extinction of South Asian vultures
TLDR
It may be some years before diclofenac is removed from the vultures' food supply, and captive populations of three vulture species have been established to provide sources of birds for future reintroduction programmes.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 47 REFERENCES
Breeding and mortality of Oriental White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in Punjab Province, Pakistan
TLDR
Investigation of breeding success and pattern of mortality in two vulture colonies within Punjab Province, Pakistan between December 2000 and June 2001 implies that the mortality factor responsible for the decline in Gyps vultures described in India is also present in Pakistan and will potentially lead to a population decline of a comparable magnitude.
Causes and Effects of Temporospatial Declines of Gyps Vultures in Asia
There are eight species in the genus Gyps : Gyps africanus , G. coprotheres, and G. rueppellii in Africa; G. bengalensis , G. indicus , G. tenuirostris , G. himalayensis in Asia; G. fulvus in Europe,
Indian vultures: victims of an infectious disease epidemic?
TLDR
Investigation of populations of two species of griffon vulture in India shows infectious disease to be the most tenable of these declines, and examines hypotheses for the cause of the declines.
Organophosphate insecticide (famphur) topically applied to cattle kills magpies and hawks
TLDR
A systematic field study of a black-billed magpie (Pica pica) population revealed that magpies and red-tailed hawks were killed by famphur used as a pouron to control cattle warbles to indicate absorption of OP chemicals.
Ecotoxicology and residues of anthelmintic compounds.
Vulture mortality: Pathological and microbiological investigations
TLDR
Preliminary observations based on postmortem, histopathology and microbiological studies indicate visceral gout in the dead birds, whereas presence of intra-nuclear inclusions and perivascular lymphoid aggregates strongly suggested the infectious aetiology.
Occurrence and fate of carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen in surface waters.
TLDR
The relative importance in terms of loads was carbamazepine, followed by diclofenac, naproxen, ibuprofen, clofibric acid, and ketoprofen; an overall removal rate was estimated in surface waters, under real-world conditions (in a lake), using field measurements and modeling.
Nephropathogenic Infectious Bronchitis in Pennsylvania Chickens 1997–2000
TLDR
The NIB outbreaks were associated with two unique genotypes, PA/Wolgemuth/98 and PA/171/99, which were unrelated to previously recognized endemic strains in Pennsylvania and were also dissimilar to each other.
Anticholinesterase poisoning of birds: Field monitoring and diagnosis of acute poisoning
TLDR
Issues associated with this kind of evaluation, and the main topic of this report, include variability of brain ChE activity among species, postmortem influences of ambient conditions (storage or field) on ChEactivity, and differential patterns of ChEActivity when inhibited by organophosphorus or carbamate compounds.
Detection and Differentiation of Mycobacterium Avium and Mycobacterium Genavense by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Enzyme Digestion Analysis
Mycobacteria are acid-fast, facultative intracellular bacilli that are highly resistant to environmental conditions and can survive in soil for months.4,14 Mycobacterium avium causes a slow
...
...