Dichromacy in the antelope ground squirrel.

  title={Dichromacy in the antelope ground squirrel.},
  author={F. Crescitelli and J. D. Pollack},
  journal={Vision research},
  volume={12 10},
Abstract The antelope ground squirrel ( Ammospermophilus leucurus ) appears to have a form of color vision analogous to that of the human protanope or extreme protanomolous trichromat. This conclusion is based on behavior responses of the animals to illuminated colored ports to which they were conditioned. In this experiment the reward for a correct response was a sunflower seed given to the squirrel at a location which was symmetrical to the colored test port and the comparison port from which… Expand
Colour vision and food selection of Callosciurus finlaysonii (Sciuridae) in tropical seasonal forests
The dichromatic colour vision in Finlayson's squirrel may be useful for selecting ripe fruits in preference to unripe ones and under laboratory conditions it can discriminate white, yellow, violet, brown and black versus green similar to leaves, but it cannot discriminate orange and red versus green. Expand
Rods in the antelope ground squirrel
To determine if the antelope ground squirrel in fact has a pure-cone retina, or whether like the other species recently studied has a small popuIation of rods, the anatomy of the photore~ptors in this species and the nature of the ERG recorded from the intact eye are examined. Expand
Colour vision in Finlayson’s squirrel (Callosciurus finlaysonii): is conspicuous pelage colour useful for species recognition?
Finlayson’s squirrel, Callosciurus finlaysonii, is distributed in lowland forests throughout South-East Asia. Its pelage colour is conspicuous and polymorphic (red, black, white and a mixture ofExpand
Spectral sensitivity and colour vision in the ground-dwelling sciurids: Results from golden mantled ground squirrels and comparisons for five species
Comparisons of the visual capacities of five species of ground-dwelling sciurids indicate that the retinas of all of these species contain a small number of functional rods in addition to a much more obvious cone population, and there is no evidence for systematic differences in visual sensitivity or colour vision among these five species. Expand
Ground squirrel - A cool model for a bright vision.
  • W. Li
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Seminars in cell & developmental biology
  • 2020
When one chooses an animal model for vision research, the ground squirrel jumps out immediately for its unique cone dominant retina, which has evolved for its diurnal lifestyle, and for hibernation-an adaptation to unique metabolic challenges encountered during its winter sojourn. Expand
Electrophysiological evidence for rod and cone-based vision in the nocturnal flying squirrel
Spectral sensitivity measurements reveal that the photopic mechanism in the flying squirrel visual system has peak sensitivity at about 520 nm, and the effects of steady light adaptation are much more obvious in the cortical potentials than they are in the retinal potentials. Expand
Scotopic and photopic vision in the california ground squirrel: Physiological and anatomical evidence
The California ground squirrel is a highly diurnal species previously thought to have an all‐cone retina that was re‐examined, and it was shown that two mechanisms having different spectral sensitivities contribute to the photopically recorded ERG. Expand
Retinal inputs to the geniculate relay cells in the eastern chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus asiaticus): a comparison between color and non-color sensitive cells
Retinal afferents to color sensitive relay cells had the following characteristics: ganglion cells of their origin were distributed in the central high density areas of the retina and axonal conduction velocities were in the intermediate range, though they were somewhat slow in +B cells. Expand
  • G. H. Jacobs
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 1993
This review has evaluated the proposition that relatively few mammalian species have a capacity for colour vision in mammals in the light of recent research on colour vision and its mechanisms in mammals and concluded that the baseline mammalian colour vision is argued to be dichromacy. Expand
Photocurrents of cone photoreceptors of the golden‐mantled ground squirrel.
  • T. Kraft
  • Physics, Medicine
  • The Journal of physiology
  • 1988
Visual transduction in photoreceptors of the ground squirrel, Citellus lateralis, was studied by recording membrane current from individual cones in small pieces of retina by fitting an exponential saturation curve to the response of a series of five low‐pass filters. Expand


Visual sensitivity and color vision in ground squirrels.
Measurements of chromaticityconfusion loci suggest that the dichromacy of these squirrels is closest to that shown by protanopic humans. Expand
Color Vision in the Antelope Ground Squirrel
Antelope ground squirrels (Citellus leucurus) were able, after conditioning, to respond correctly to a port illuminated with light at a wavelength of 460 nanometers. This color randomly presented atExpand
Evidence for color vision in the prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus)
An experiment was performed to determine whether prairie dogs could use color information. By means of a WGTA four prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) were presented with two-choice colorExpand
Bees: their vision, chemical senses, and language
Bees (first published in 1950 and revised in 1971), reported the startling results of his ingenious and revolutionary experiments with honeybees and updated his discussion about the phylogenetic origin of the language of bees and also demonstrated that their color sense is greater than had been thought previously. Expand
  • T. Henderson
  • Medicine
  • The British journal of ophthalmology
  • 1943
The list of conditio'ns which Major Wright indicates may be included in Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome lends support to his view that this syndrome is liberal in its clinical confines; it would seem that such a label can' add little information to a particular case. Expand
Color vision in tree squirrels
Six tree squirrels were tested on a series of color discrimination problems utilizing various combinations of nine color filters ranging from 680 to 420 mu with intensity randomized to support studies using indirect methods in demonstrating that tree Squirrels possess color discrimination ability. Expand
The Response Properties of Single Ganglion Cells in the Goldfish Retina
This work has indicated that the discharge patterns of single ganglion cells of the vertebrate retina are basically similar, and the "on-off ' ' type is most frequently seen and is looked on as playing the dominant role in the functional organization. Expand
The red-green pigments of normal vision.
Exactly similar results were found for deuteranopes, normals andDeuteranomalous in the “deut mode”, which means that matches are unaffected by theq settings, and the protanope sensitivity curve is given. Expand
Visual pigments in dichromats.
It is concluded that the pigments measured by densitometry arevisual pigments; their action spectrum coincides closely with the spectral sensitivity curves of Pitt for protanopes and deuteranopes. Expand
Sensitive low-light-level microspectrophotometer: detection of photosensitive pigments of retinal cones.
Some general design considerations, the character and performance of the equipment, and some of the results obtained with retinal cones are reviewed. Expand