The neurofibromatoses are a diverse group of genetic conditions that share a predisposition to the development of tumors of the nerve sheath. Schwannomatosis is a recently recognized third major form of neurofibromatosis (NF) that causes multiple schwannomas without vestibular tumors diagnostic of NF2. Patients with schwannomatosis represent 2.4 to 5% of all patients requiring schwannoma resection and approximately one third of patients with schwannomatosis have anatomically localized disease with tumors limited to a single limb or segment of spine. Epidemiologic studies suggest that schwannomatosis is as common as NF2, but that familial occurrence is inexplicably rare. Patients with schwannomatosis overwhelmingly present with pain, and pain remains the primary clinical problem and indication for surgery. Diagnostic criteria for schwannomatosis are needed for both clinicians and researchers, but final diagnostic certainly will await the identification of the schwannomatosis locus itself.