In an ongoing study we evaluated 71 males and 32 females attending our sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic. Intraurethral or endocervical swab specimens were cultured for Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma homines (MH), Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), using an ELISA technique and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HIV antigen, hepatitis B (HBV) and Treponema pallidum (TP) seropositivity were tested by ELISA. Mean age was 33.4 and range 15-72 years. 83 patients (81%) used condoms only rarely, 35 (35%) had multiple sexual partners and 83 (81%) were treated empirically prior to evaluation. Dysuria and urethral discharge were found in 47 (45.6%), of whom 34 (33%) were males; the majority of females were asymptomatic. A specific etiology for STD was found in 53 patients (51.4%) and 1/3 had more than 1 pathogen. CT, UU, MH, HSV, NG and TV were found in 27, 24, 5, 3, 2 and 1, respectively. 8 patients were seropositive for HBV and 1 for TP; all were seronegative for HIV. CT was the most prevalent pathogen found. All patients with STD symptoms should be screened for all sexually transmitted pathogens, since many of them have more than 1 pathogen. STD clinics in Israel should be developed in conjunction with microbiology laboratories for better management of STD in the community.