Diagnostic Checks for Multilevel Models


and ( j , δj) ⊥ ( `, δ`) (4.1c) for all j 6= `. The lengths of the vectors yj , β, and δj , respectively, are nj , r, and s. Like in all regression-type models, the explanatory variables X and Z are regarded as fixed variables, which can also be expressed by saying that the distributions of the random variables and δ are conditional onX andZ. The random… (More)

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