Diagnostic Checks for Multilevel Models

  title={Diagnostic Checks for Multilevel Models},
  author={Tom A. B. Snijders and Johannes Berkhof},
for all j 6= l. The lengths of the vectors yj , β, and δj , respectively, are nj , r, and s. Like in all regression-type models, the explanatory variables X and Z are regarded as fixed variables, which can also be expressed by saying that the distributions of the random variables ǫ and δ are conditional on X and Z. The random variables ǫ and δ are also called the vectors of residuals at levels 1 and 2, respectively. The variables δ are also called random slopes. Level-two units are also called… 

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