# Diagnostic Checks for Multilevel Models

@inproceedings{Snijders2008DiagnosticCF, title={Diagnostic Checks for Multilevel Models}, author={Tom A. B. Snijders and Johannes Berkhof}, year={2008} }

for all j 6= l. The lengths of the vectors yj , β, and δj , respectively, are nj , r, and s. Like in all regression-type models, the explanatory variables X and Z are regarded as fixed variables, which can also be expressed by saying that the distributions of the random variables ǫ and δ are conditional on X and Z. The random variables ǫ and δ are also called the vectors of residuals at levels 1 and 2, respectively. The variables δ are also called random slopes. Level-two units are also called…

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