Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in the first 3 years of life

  title={Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in the first 3 years of life},
  author={Rebecca J. Landa},
  journal={Nature Clinical Practice Neurology},
  • R. Landa
  • Published 5 February 2008
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Nature Clinical Practice Neurology
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a class of neurodevelopmental disorders defined by qualitative impairments in social functioning and communication, often accompanied by repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior and interests. The term 'ASD' encompasses autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, and Asperger's syndrome. ASDs show etiologic heterogeneity, and there is no definitive medical test or cure for these conditions. Around 1 in 150 children have an ASD… 

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The observation and appreciation of the fact that many ASD children, adolescents, and adults have medically relevant health-care issues that may go undetected due to atypical symptom presentation, the inability of the patient to describe or localize discomfort and often due to behavioral issues that can make physical examination challenging.

Hearing Impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Developmental Functioning in Infants and Toddlers

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to co-occur with other psychiatric disorders and medical conditions, and identification of comorbidities is crucial for appropriate intervention. Currently,

Methods of Early Diagnosis and Tracking for Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS)

A number of scales designed to diagnose autism have been adopted for early identification and other scales have been designed specifically to diagnose children at 18–36 months of age and all are briefly discussed in this review.

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Clinical profile of children with autism spectrum disorder in tertiary care centre

Core symptoms seen in Autism were deficits in social functioning, impaired language/communication skills, abnormal play, and unusual sensory affection.

Autism Spectrum Disorder-A Paediatric Dentist’s Perspective

The diagnosis, etiology, and clinical aspects of ASD that are pertinent to dental professionals who treat these patients are discussed.

Autism Spectrum Disorder-A Paediatric Dentist’s Perspective

The diagnosis, etiology, and clinical aspects of ASD that are pertinent to dental professionals who treat these patients are discussed.

Social and behavioural outcomes in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders: a longitudinal cohort study.

Evidence is provided that it may be difficult to distinguish preschool age children who exhibit autistic-like symptoms but improve, from those who go on to develop lifelong impairment.



Autism spectrum disorder in the second year: stability and change in syndrome expression.

The study provides support for stability of clinical diagnosis and syndrome expression in the second year and highlights advantages and limitations of the ADI-R and ADOS-G for diagnosing and documenting symptoms of ASD in infants.

Predictors of Optimal Outcome in Toddlers Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Results support the idea that some toddlers with ASD can lose their diagnosis and suggest that this is difficult to predict, but children with PDD-NOS were significantly more likely than those with full autistic disorder to move off the spectrum.

How Well Does Early Diagnosis of Autism Stand the Test of Time?

  • V. MooreSally Goodson
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Autism : the international journal of research and practice
  • 2003
Diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders at age 2 was found to be reliable and stable, and the development of an early diagnostic service in Southampton is described.

Development in infants with autism spectrum disorders: a prospective study.

Variations from typical and language delayed development are detectable in many children with ASD using a measure of general development by 24 months of age, which showed a significant decrease in development between the first and second birthdays.

Social and communication development in toddlers with early and later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders.

Examination of growth trajectories suggests that autism may involve developmental arrest, slowing, or even regression, and provides insight into different patterns of development of children with early vs later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders.

Practitioner review: Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in 2- and 3-year-old children.

  • T. CharmanG. Baird
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • 2002
Earlier diagnosis and rising recognition of ASD have significant implications for primary healthcare and specialist diagnostic and therapeutic services.

Course of Autism Signs in the First Year of Life

The behavioral summarized evaluation scale, applied to 40 home movies of children later diagnosed as having ASD, showed that most of the subjects display symptoms within the first year of life, when only a small group is completely symptom free.

Factors Associated With Age of Diagnosis Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Improvements over time are suggested over time in decreasing the age at which children with ASD, especially higher functioning children, receive a diagnosis and a lack of resources in rural areas and for near-poor families and the importance of continuous pediatric care and specialty referrals are suggested.

Variability in outcome for children with an ASD diagnosis at age 2.

The stability of ASD was lower in the present study than has been reported previously, a finding largely attributable to children who were diagnosed at 30 months or younger.

The diagnosis of autism and Asperger syndrome: findings from a survey of 770 families

The diagnostic experiences of 614 parents of children with autism and 156 with Asperger syndrome were compared and the practical implications of delayed diagnosis, especially in the case of more able children with As perger syndrome are discussed.