Diagnosis and treatment of polonium poisoning

  title={Diagnosis and treatment of polonium poisoning},
  author={Robert D Jefferson and Ronald Earl Goans and Peter G. Blain and Simon Hugh Lynton Thomas},
  journal={Clinical Toxicology},
  pages={379 - 392}
Objectives. Interest in the clinical toxicology of 210polonium (210Po) has been stimulated by the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko in 2006. This article reviews the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) resulting from the ingestion of 210Po. Physical characteristics. 210Po is a high-energy α-emitter (radioactive half-life 138 days) that presents a radiation hazard only if taken into the body, for example, by ingestion, because of the low range of alpha… 
Metabolism of 210Po in rats: volatile 210Po in excreta.
Results showed that the daily excretion of volatile (210)Po by the rats is in a very small percentage (0.002-0.009 %) of the administered amounts, however, if the administered amount is large, the excreta can be significant.
Collateral contamination concomitant to the polonium-210 poisoning of Mr Alexander Litvinenko.
The use of the chelating agent, unithiol, to increase 210Po excretion in this case was only moderately effective in reducing doses received, and a notably increased risk of cancer can be inferred.
Review of chemical and radiotoxicological properties of polonium for internal contamination purposes.
The aim of this review is to look at the several aspects of polonium linked to its chemical properties and its radiotoxicity, including (i) its radiochemistry and interaction with matter; (ii) its main sources and uses; (iii) its physicochemical properties; (iv) itsmain analytical methods; (v) its background exposure risk in water, food, and other environmental media.
Increase of 210Po levels in human semen fluid after mussel ingestion.
Occurrence of 210Po and Biological Effects of Low-Level Exposure: The Need for Research
New research is needed to evaluate environmental exposure to 210Po and the biological effects of low-dose exposure to it so that public health officials can develop appropriate mitigation measures where necessary.
The Polonium-210 Public Health Assessment: The Need for Medical Toxicology Expertise in Radiation Terrorism Events
In late 2006, an event occurred in the UK for which the RSB was uniquely suited to respond: the radioactive isotope polonium-210 (Po) was deliberately used as a weapon against one person and, perhaps accidentally, released into the environment.
Treatment of radiological contamination: a review
An overview of treatment of radiological contamination after internal contamination is presented, which is that acceleration of the natural rate of elimination of the contaminant will reduce the amount of radioactivity retained in the body.
Postmortem Biochemistry and Toxicology
The aim of postmortem biochemistry and toxicology is either to help establish the cause of death, or to gain information on events immediately before death, to help investigate adherence to prescribed therapy, for example with anticonvulsants or antipsychotics.


Polonium-210 as a poison.
An evaluation of published human and animal data and models developed for the estimation of alpha radiation doses from (210)Po and the induction of potentially fatal damage to different organs and tissues suggests that bone marrow failure is likely to be an important component of multiple contributory causes of death occurring within a few weeks of an intake by ingestion.
Effect of oxathiol on the uptake of absorbed doses from polonium-210 in the rat.
The oxathiol treatment led to considerable decreases of alpha irradiation of the body as a result of the removal of /sup 210/Po, mainly through the kidneys.
Reduction of subacute lethal radiotoxicity of polonium-210 in rats by chelating agents.
Under the conditions of the experiment only HOEtTTC was fully effective in reducing subacute lethal radiotoxicity of 210Po.
Tissue decorporation of polonium-210 in rats by DMPA.
DMPA appears to be a new and consistent decorporating agent for polonium-210 and kidney levels of 210Po in rats given DMPA were significantly lower than those receiving DMSA, DMPS, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, or WR2721.
Polonium 210, exposed
  • Mai H. Le
  • Physics
    Journal of Medical Toxicology
  • 2009
The death of a former KGB member, Alexander Litvinenko, from Polonium-210 (210Po) poisoning on November 23, 2006, has sparked a wave of fear and intrigue in this age of orange Homeland Security levels and an effort by the CDC and international health agencies to inform the public of the realities of 210Po and other radiological weapons.
Health Risk Evaluations for Ingestion Exposure of Humans to Polonium-210
  • B. Scott
  • Environmental Science
    Dose-response : a publication of International Hormesis Society
  • 2007
This paper is the result of assembling and interpreting existing Po-210 data within the context of what is considered a reliable risk model (hazard-function [HF] model) for characterizing the risk of death from deterministic effects of high alpha radiation doses and dose rates to body organs.
210Pb and 210Po content in air, water, foodstuffs, and the human body.
The highest concentration of 210Pb and 210Po in the body was observed in the skeleton and hair, and the body burden of humans was 773 pCi of 210 Pb and 513 pCI of 210Po.
Transfer of Polonium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium to the Primate Fetus
Two baboons in the fifth month of pregnancy were given a single intravenous injection of a mixture of 210 Po, 237 Np, 239 Pu and 241 Am in citrate solution, showing higher levels of retention in the fetus and placenta than for other species.
N-(2,3-Dimercaptopropyl)phthalamidic acid (DMPA) increases polonium-210 excretion
DMPA has greater specificity in chelating and increasing the excretion of polonium-210 than DMSA, and also decreased the level of210Po in the spleen, a radiosensitive organ.
Mobilization and detoxification of polonium-210 in rats by 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid and its derivatives.
Of the vicinal dithiols examined, Mi-BDMA was the best mobilizing chelating agent for 210Po and it reduced 210Po toxicity when the treatment started immediately, and the detoxification efficacy of the immediate treatment with HOEtTTC, observed in the previous study, was superior to that of the present result.