Diagnosis and management of vitamin D deficiency

@article{Pearce2010DiagnosisAM,
  title={Diagnosis and management of vitamin D deficiency},
  author={Simon H S Pearce and Tim Cheetham},
  journal={BMJ : British Medical Journal},
  year={2010},
  volume={340}
}
Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults are the classic manifestations of profound vitamin D deficiency. In recent years, however, non-musculoskeletal conditions—including cancer, metabolic syndrome, infectious and autoimmune disorders—have also been found to be associated with low vitamin D levels. The spectrum of these common disorders is of particular concern because observational studies have demonstrated that vitamin D insufficiency is widespread in many northern regions of the… 
Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency from childhood to adulthood: Insights from a sunny country
TLDR
The extent and severity of vitamin D deficiency worldwide and especially in Israel is reviewed, which was associated with metabolic syndromes and obesity, and was more prevalent in children who spend less time on outdoor activities, in obese children, and in cases when there was imbalance between nutritional intakes and requirements.
Vitamin D: Testing and supplementation in adults
TLDR
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance of musculoskeletal health through the regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis, making vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency very common in the UK particularly during the winter months and early spring.
Childhood vitamin D deficiency in the UK : diagnosis, clinical consequences and healthcare costs
TLDR
It is suggested that vitamin D deficiency may be over-tested and over-diagnosed, yet under-prevented, among children in the UK.
Vitamin D Supplementation: We Must Not Fail Our Children!
TLDR
Parents are generally not aware about vitamin D supplementation because of a lack of information with the high rates of reported suboptimal vitamin D levels amongst children not being addressed resulting in increased health risks to the authors' children.
Vitamin D: what clinicians need to know
TLDR
This review addresses extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D, which is essential for skeletal health and prevention of falls and injuries, and measurement of serum 25(OH)D is the way to evaluate vitamin D status.
Vitamin D status in pediatric patients with a history of malignancy
TLDR
The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pediatric patients with a history of malignancy was high, whereas calcium intake was low, which is concerning, given the risk for osteoporosis in this population and the possible role of Vitamin D in the context of malIGNancy.
Vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease: the missing link
TLDR
The focus of this article is to explore the role of vitamin D deficiency in relation to cardiovascular disease, and there was a graded increase in cardiovascular risk across the categories with a hazard ratio of 1.53 for incident cardiovascular events.
Vitamin D deficiency in children presenting to the emergency department: a growing concern. Vitamin D deficiency in Birmingham's children: presentation to the emergency department
TLDR
Vitamin D deficiency should be considered in children with pigmented skin presenting with a range of symptoms, and probably represents only a very small proportion of the vitamin D deficiency in children in Birmingham.
High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in a Swiss rheumatology outpatient population.
TLDR
It is confirmed that hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in an outpatient population of rheumatology patients, affecting 86% of subjects, and only a quarter of those on oral supplementation attained normal values of 25-OH vitamin D.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 53 REFERENCES
Primary vitamin D deficiency in adults
  • Medicine
    Drug and therapeutics bulletin
  • 2006
TLDR
The management of adults with vitamin D deficiency is reviewed, noting that the condition is even more common in patients with osteoporotic fractures.
Prevention of Rickets and Vitamin D Deficiency in Infants, Children, and Adolescents
TLDR
These revised guidelines for vitamin D intake for healthy infants, children, and adolescents are based on evidence from new clinical trials and the historical precedence of safely giving 400 IU of vitamin D per day in the pediatric and adolescent population.
Combined deficiency of iron and vitamin D in Asian toddlers.
TLDR
In view of the association of poor iron and vitamin D state combined prophylaxis is desirable, strategies for preventing rickets in this country are not combined with attempts to detect or prevent iron deficiency, and in the authors' opinion they should be and the options are discussed.
Comparisons of oral calcium, high dose vitamin D and a combination of these in the treatment of nutritional rickets in children.
TLDR
It is concluded that vitamin D deficiency appears to be the primary etiologic factor of rickets in children residing in lower socioeconomic regions of a sunny city, Istanbul, but a better response to treatment with vitamin D or in combination with calcium was obtained than to Treatment with calcium alone.
Vitamin D concentrations in an UK inner-city multicultural outpatient population
TLDR
A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Afro-Caribbean and Asians, and, in particular, women, is found, and it is clear that more routine screening ofitamin D is needed.
Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors.
TLDR
Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the general population was alarmingly high during the winter and spring, which warrants action at a population level rather than at a risk group level.
Vitamin D and adult bone health in Australia and New Zealand: a position statement
TLDR
Exposure of hands, face and arms to one‐third of a minimal erythemal dose (MED) of sunlight most days is recommended for adequate endogenous vitamin D synthesis, but deliberate sun exposure between 10:00 and 14:00 in summer (11:00–15:00 daylight saving time) is not advised.
Nutritional rickets with normal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a call for reexamining the role of dietary calcium intake in North American infants.
TLDR
Clinicians should be aware that low dietary calcium intake after weaning may result in the development of nutritional rickets, and that attention to calcium intake as well as that of vitamin D is important in the establishment of optimal dietary practices for North American infants and children.
Vitamin D Deficiency in Children and Its Management: Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations
TLDR
This report reviews recommendations for sun exposure and vitamin D intake and possible caveats associated with these recommendations and also examines mechanisms whereby vitamin D synthesis and intake can be optimized.
25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of mortality in the general population.
TLDR
The lowest quartile of 25(OH)D level (<17.8 ng/mL) is independently associated with all-cause mortality in the general population, and the adjusted models of CVD and cancer mortality revealed a higher risk, which was not statistically significant.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...