Diagnosis and management of retinoblastoma.

  title={Diagnosis and management of retinoblastoma.},
  author={Carol L Shields and Jerry A. Shields},
  journal={Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center},
  volume={11 5},
BACKGROUND Retinoblastoma is a highly malignant tumor of the eye that manifests most often in the first 3 years of life. METHODS Published articles were reviewed to evaluate the clinical features and current methods of diagnosis and to assess the trends in management. RESULTS This malignancy leads to metastatic disease and death in 50% of children worldwide but in less than 5% of children in the United States and other developed nations with advanced medical care. Over the past decade… CONTINUE READING


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