Diagnosis and management of restricted or closed foramen ovale in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

@article{Donofrio2004DiagnosisAM,
  title={Diagnosis and management of restricted or closed foramen ovale in fetuses with congenital heart disease.},
  author={M Donofrio and Yvonne A Bremer and William B. Moskowitz},
  journal={The American journal of cardiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={94 10},
  pages={1348-51}
}
The incidence of foramen ovale restriction or closure is greater in fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHDs) and obligate atrial shunting and/or left atrial hypertension. Foramen ovale restriction or closure in fetuses with CHD can cause distress in utero or at birth. We suggest performing serial ultrasound assessment for at-risk fetuses with CHD to best assure fetal well-being plan the timing and mode of delivery, and develop management protocols for in utero and postnatal care. The future… CONTINUE READING