Diagnosis | Urolithiasis

  title={Diagnosis | Urolithiasis},
  author={Cathy E. Langston and Kelly Gisselman and Douglas A. Palma and John McCue},
  journal={Lab Animal},
Diagnostic imaging is usually required to determine the presence of urolithiasis. Double-contrast cystography is more accurate than survey radiography and approximately as accurate as ultrasonography. Knowledge of the mineral composition of calculi helps direct appropriate management of urolithiasis, and signalment can help predict composition with about 70% accuracy. In cats, about half of cystic calculi are struvite and half are calcium oxalate; most nephroliths and ureteroliths are calcium… 
Lower urinary tract lithiasis of cats in Algeria: Clinical and epidemiologic features
The most clinically relevant symptoms of urolithiasis observed in cats were dysuria, pollakiuria, hematuria, and stranguria, and factors, such as race, gender, age, diet, and lifestyle, should be considered as potential risk factors for urolithsiasis.
  • J. R. NevinsW. MaiE. Thomas
  • Medicine
    Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • 2015
The use of ultrasound as an adjunct for treatment planning in cats presented with urethral obstruction but not as a method for predicting risk of reobstruction is supported.
Adverse urinary effects of allopurinol in dogs with leishmaniasis.
It is demonstrated that urolithiasis and renal mineralisation can occur in dogs receiving allopurinol therapy and dogs receiving therapy should be monitored for the development of urinary adverse effects from the beginning of treatment.


Imaging canine urocystoliths. Detection and prediction of mineral content.
Contrast cystography.
  • S. Essman
  • Medicine
    Clinical techniques in small animal practice
  • 2005
Cystography is a radiographic study performed to aid in evaluation of the urinary bladder for extramural, mural, or intraluminal lesions. These lesions may primarily involve the urinary bladder or
Analysis of 77,000 canine uroliths. Perspectives from the Minnesota Urolith Center.
Excretory urography.
  • K. Heuter
  • Medicine
    Clinical techniques in small animal practice
  • 2005
Why excretory urography remains, and will remain, a ubiquitous test that gives excellent detail of the entire urinary tract, and remains an essential tool for the assessment of the renal pelves and especially the ureters is explained.
Urocystolith detection: comparison of survey, contrast radiographic and ultrasonographic techniques in an in vitro bladder phantom.
Urocystoliths of 9 mineral types from 437 canine patients submitted to the University of Minnesota Urolith Bank were imaged in a urinary bladder phantom. Imaging techniques simulated were survey
Canine urolithiasis: a look at over 16 000 urolith submissions to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre from February 1998 to April 2003.
Oxalate uroliths were most common in males and in the miniature schnauzer, bichon frise, Lhasa apso, shih tzu, and Yorkshire terrier, and other urolith types, including cystine, xanthine, silica, and calcium phosphate, were less commonly reported.
Canine and feline nephrolithiasis. Epidemiology, detection, and management.
An integrated epidemiologic and radiographic algorithm for canine urocystolith mineral type prediction.
The goal was to assess the accuracy of the various techniques in predicting the urocystolith mineral types and the combination of signalment and double contrast cystography does improve mineral type prediction accuracy.
Clinical, clinicopathologic, radiographic, and ultrasonographic abnormalities in cats with ureteral calculi: 163 cases (1984-2002).
OBJECTIVE To determine clinical, clinicopathologic, radiographic, and ultrasonographic abnormalities in cats with ureteral calculi. DESIGN Retrospective study. ANIMALS 163 client-owned cats.
Antegrade pyelography for suspected ureteral obstruction in cats: 11 cases (1995-2001).
Antegrade pyelography can be a useful alternative in the diagnosis and localization of ureteral obstructions in azotemic cats, although leakage of contrast material may prevent interpretation of the study.