Diagnosing the decline in pharmaceutical R&D efficiency

@article{Scannell2012DiagnosingTD,
  title={Diagnosing the decline in pharmaceutical R\&D efficiency},
  author={Jack W. Scannell and Alex Blanckley and Helen Boldon and Brian Warrington},
  journal={Nature Reviews Drug Discovery},
  year={2012},
  volume={11},
  pages={191-200}
}
The past 60 years have seen huge advances in many of the scientific, technological and managerial factors that should tend to raise the efficiency of commercial drug research and development (R&D). Yet the number of new drugs approved per billion US dollars spent on R&D has halved roughly every 9 years since 1950, falling around 80-fold in inflation-adjusted terms. There have been many proposed solutions to the problem of declining R&D efficiency. However, their apparent lack of impact so far… 

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